Discourse presentation inEarly Modern English writing:a corpus-based approachDan

Discourse presentation inEarly Modern English writing:a corpus-based approachDan www.phwiki.com

Discourse presentation inEarly Modern English writing:a corpus-based approachDan

Kraker, Dan, News Director;Indian Country News Bureau correspondent has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Discourse presentation inEarly Modern English writing:a corpus-based approachDan McIntyreI love Linguistics!Hazel said “I love Linguistics!”I love Linguistics!Hazel said that she loved Linguistics.

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DISCOURSE PRESENTATIONPrototypically, the presentation in a later discourse situation of speech, writing or thought from an earlier discourse situationCorpus constructionSampling frame similar to that of the Lancaster Speech, Writing in addition to Thought Presentation Written Corpus2000-word samples of textsfictionnews reportautobiographyTime frame 1500-175050,000 words (approx)Some flexibility required as to what counts as news report

Corpus annotation Theyr first botye (they thought) shoulde be the cytye of excetter, the next, the spoyle of theyr own countreye, (A copye of a letter containing certayne newes, in addition to the articles of requestes of the Devonshyre in addition to Cornyshe Rebelles, 1549)Corpus annotation Roxanne finding her Mistresse notwithst in addition to ing her professions, to be something discomposed, either by reason of the distempers of her sickness, or in regard of the distraction of her apprehension, having belike be as long as e shee went to sleep, filled her imagination with some unprofitable thoughts proceeding from the discourse of as long as mer actions or conceptions,

No. of instances of SW&TP as a percentage of all discourse presentationSpeech presentationNo. of instances of speech presentation as a percentage of all discourse presentation

Thought presentationNo. of instances of thought presentation as a percentage of all discourse presentationWriting presentation

No. of instances of writing presentation as a percentage of all discourse presentationWhat does this tell us about Early Modern English newspaper styleTHE SCARCITY OF NEWSNews was scarce due to censorshipLeads to re-reporting of imported newsNewspapers dependent on unofficial sources of in as long as mation

News gatherers were despatched into the night to seek out coffee-house gossip, tavern rumour in addition to the tales of soldiers returned from the wars (Clarke 2004: 32).“Words such as ‘it is reported’ often meant nothing more than someone had been heard to say it (Sutherl in addition to 1986: 47)“acclamations of joy resounded through the whole fleet (English Mercurie 1588)“Nothinge is now talked of in these Partes, but the intended Invasion of Engl in addition to . (English Mercurie 1588)“

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Robert Winter, in like manner, thinking himself already have a saint as long as his whole villainy, said little to any purpose [ ] His brother said little, but, with a guilty conscience, swallowed up a concealed grief with little show of sorrow as long as that time. [ ] First up went Digby, a man of goodly personage in addition to a manly aspect, but with vain in addition to superstitious crossing of himself he betook himself to his Latin prayers, mumbling to himself.(The Weekley News 1606)IW in addition to re-reporting Tuesday , Decemb. 27. By Letters from the Hague , it is written, that the French Ambassador there, said as long as certain of late; That if the Dutch would break off the Treaty with Engl in addition to , he would assure them of the Crown of Sweden , 1 itch; the substance of which was, that the charge of filling up, the fixing of posts, &c. am 2 remarkable, they write from thence, that his majesty one day took three wild boars, in addition to the next f 3 e as long as the said county, threatening, that in case he procceded any farther in taxing houses, he sho 4 ‘d on the spot. They write from Lynn, that on Sunday se’nnight they had such a violent storm there, 5 Marquis de Monti has lately wrote to the magistrates of Dantzick, that they may soon expect such a sum from 6 the captain of which vessel reports, that two Maltese men of war have taken the Admiral 7 We have like wise advice from Genoa, that a ship belonging to Majorca is arrived in that port, 8 he has, as they write from Vienna, settled the succession 9 own as long as good of the publick, in addition to the honour of that mighty empire, he has, as they writ 10 wound. We have an account, that one Mons. Munier, who has lived in Engl in addition to the 11 pril next ensuing: They also tell us, that the Re as long as m of the troops, which was actually carried on i 12 Our letters from Tournay, of the 30th past, say, that an arrest of the council state had been 13 Our letters this day from Brussels say, that the burgers, who have fled from their houses, 14 Our Advices from Copenhagen say they were busy there fitting out a squadron of men 15 We have advice from Moscow that his Czarish Majesty had disb in addition to ed a great many 16 Our letters from Paris make mention, as if the Pope, who had been relapsed, were recovered, in addition to tha 17 We have advice from Lubeck, that 5 ships were lately cast away on the coast of 18 They tell us from Stetin, that the Governour General Mellin had, by Placaet, 19 We have an account from Lysl in addition to , that they are busy levying a tax there, which is to 20 We have advice from Warsaw, that, pursuant to the accommodation made with the E 21 Last Sunday Publication was made throughout the kingdom, that the Month of February next ensuing, shall 22 Dec 24 Our letters from Pol in addition to say, that Prince Alex in addition to er Sobietzki, designed to go to Rome to see 23 her her collar. The port-letters say, that the Mary of London was put into Plymouth, bound as long as Sevil 24 Our acounts from most of the provinces of this kingdom say, that there’s nothing but 25 ordering the l in addition to tgrave of Hess d’Armstadt to as long as bear his hostilities against the L in addition to tgrave of Hesse Hom 26 Middleton also writes to them out of Holl in addition to , that Colonel Dezmond was shipped away from the 26. of 27 t a Letter to Glencarn , assuring him that the K. of France , in addition to Denmark , the Duke of Brendenburgh 28 tters from the Hague , it is written, that the French Ambassador there, 29 ther in men nor money, desiring him to be with in what he as long as merly Promised unto them. 30 of their Garrisons, in addition to they wonder that he is able to send them no aid , neither in men nor 31 unto the sayd Generall, advising him that the sayd Ile of Lantore did belong unto the King of Engla 32 brought Advice into Plymouth, that he had descried the Spanish Armado near the Li 33 Capt. Fleming, who had beene ordered to cruize in the Chops of the Channell, as long as Discoverie, 34 certen requestes, as he termed them) to remedye the grieffes of the Devonshirmen,

1 itch; the substance of which was, that the charge of filling up, the fixing of posts, &c. am 2 remarkable, they write from thence, that his majesty one day took three wild boars, in addition to the next f 3 e as long as the said county, threatening, that in case he procceded any farther in taxing houses, he sho 4 ‘d on the spot. They write from Lynn, that on Sunday se’nnight they had such a violent storm there, 5 Marquis de Monti has lately wrote to the magistrates of Dantzick, that they may soon expect such a sum from 6 the captain of which vessel reports, that two Maltese men of war have taken the Admiral 7 We have like wise advice from Genoa, that a ship belonging to Majorca is arrived in that port, 8 he has, as they write from Vienna, settled the succession 9 own as long as good of the publick, in addition to the honour of that mighty empire, he has, as they writ 10 wound. We have an account, that one Mons. Munier, who has lived in Engl in addition to the 11 pril next ensuing: They also tell us, that the Re as long as m of the troops, which was actually carried on i 12 Our letters from Tournay, of the 30th past, say, that an arrest of the council state had been 13 Our letters this day from Brussels say, that the burgers, who have fled from their houses, 14 Our Advices from Copenhagen say they were busy there fitting out a squadron of men 15 We have advice from Moscow that his Czarish Majesty had disb in addition to ed a great many 16 Our letters from Paris make mention, as if the Pope, who had been relapsed, were recovered, in addition to tha 17 We have advice from Lubeck, that 5 ships were lately cast away on the coast of 18 They tell us from Stetin, that the Governour General Mellin had, by Placaet, 19 We have an account from Lysl in addition to , that they are busy levying a tax there, which is to 20 We have advice from Warsaw, that, pursuant to the accommodation made with the E 21 Last Sunday Publication was made throughout the kingdom, that the Month of February next ensuing, shall 22 Dec 24 Our letters from Pol in addition to say, that Prince Alex in addition to er Sobietzki, designed to go to Rome to see 23 her her collar. The port-letters say, that the Mary of London was put into Plymouth, bound as long as Sevil 24 Our acounts from most of the provinces of this kingdom say, that there’s nothing but 25 ordering the l in addition to tgrave of Hess d’Armstadt to as long as bear his hostilities against the L in addition to tgrave of Hesse Hom 26 Middleton also writes to them out of Holl in addition to , that Colonel Dezmond was shipped away from the 26. of 27 t a Letter to Glencarn , assuring him that the K. of France , in addition to Denmark , the Duke of Brendenburgh 28 tters from the Hague , it is written, that the French Ambassador there, 29 ther in men nor money, desiring him to be with in what he as long as merly Promised unto them. 30 of their Garrisons, in addition to they wonder that he is able to send them no aid , neither in men nor 31 unto the sayd Generall, advising him that the sayd Ile of Lantore did belong unto the King of Engla 32 brought Advice into Plymouth, that he had descried the Spanish Armado near the Li 33 Capt. Fleming, who had beene ordered to cruize in the Chops of the Channell, as long as Discoverie, 34 certen requestes, as he termed them) to remedye the grieffes of the Devonshirmen, Throughout the eighteenth century, news often comprised the contents of letters received, conveying both opinion in addition to in as long as mation, in addition to the language reflected the letter-writing style of the time.“We have a report her, but we hope without foundation, that his Majesty’s frigate Minerva was not lost on the back of the Isle of Wight on Friday last night last, when it really blew a hurricane. (London Evening Post, 31 Dec to 3 Jan 1764)”Newspapers depended on such reports as long as their own content, together with letters from readers to fill their pages. Communication in addition to distribution technologies available at the time meant that maintaining a regular flow of news was a problem. It meant that the language of the reports which were in regular supply could be more elaborate.(Conboy 2007: 6-7)“ConclusionsMore maximal discourse presentation (e.g. DS) in PDEPossibly more minimal discourse presentation (e.g. NV) in EModEReflective of (changing) genre traitsMinimal discourse presentation reflects both practical problems of news reporting in addition to ideological slant of reporters

ConclusionsMore Indirect Writing in EModE – reflects re-reporting of as long as eign news in addition to emphasis placed on thisAuthenticating function of reporting clauses (Jucker 2006); more emphasis on attributing sources (seen in NPW category)Disassociating functionSummary (e.g. IWs) as long as reasons of space, simplicity, etc.DiegesisMimesisConclusionsMore Indirect Writing in EModE – reflects re-reporting of as long as eign news in addition to emphasis placed on thisAuthenticating function of reporting clauses (Jucker 2006); more emphasis on attributing sources (seen in NPW category)Disassociating functionSummary (e.g. IWs) as long as reasons of space, simplicity, etc.TellingShowingREFERENCESBanfield, A. (1973) ‘Narrative style in addition to the grammar of direct in addition to indirect speech’, Foundations of Language 10: 1-39.Baynham, M. in addition to Slembrouck, S. (1999) ‘Speech representation in addition to institutional discourse’, Text 194: 439-57.Clark, H. H. in addition to Gerrig, R. J. (1990) ‘Quotations as demonstrations’, Language 66: 764-805.Conboy, M. (2007) The Language of the News. London: Routledge.Holt, L. (1999) ‘Just gassing: an analysis of direct reported speech in a conversation between employees of a gas supply company’, Text 194: 505-37.Holt, L. in addition to Clift, R. (eds) (2006) Reporting Talk: Reported Speech in Interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Leech, G. in addition to Short, M. (2007) Style in Fiction, 2nd edn. London: Pearson Education.Mahlberg, M. (2007) ‘Clusters, key clusters in addition to local textual functions in Dickens’, Corpora 2(1): 1-31.McHale, B. (1978) ‘Free indirect discourse: a survey of recent accounts’, Poetics in addition to Theory of Literature 3: 235-87.McIntyre, D. in addition to Walker, B. (2011) ‘Discourse presentation in Early Modern English writing: a preliminary corpus-based investigation’, International Journal of Corpus Linguistics 16(1): 101-30.McIntyre, D., Bellard-Thomson, C., Heywood, J., McEnery, A., Semino, E. in addition to Short, M. (2004) ‘Investigating the presentation of speech, writing in addition to thought in spoken British English: a corpus-based approach’ ICAME Journal 28:49-76.Moore, C. (2002) ‘Reporting direct speech in Early Modern sl in addition to er depositions’, in Minkova, D. in addition to Stockwell, R. (eds) Studies in the History of the English Language: A Millennial Perspective , pp.399-416. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Myers, G. (1999) ‘Unspoken speech: hypothetical reported discourse in addition to the rhetoric of everyday talk’, Text 194: 571-90.Ravotas, D. in addition to Berkenkotter, C. (1998) ‘Voices in the text: the uses of reported speech in a psychotherapists notes in addition to initial assessments’, Text 182: 211-39.Semino, E. in addition to Short, M. (2004) Corpus Stylistics: Speech, Writing in addition to Thought Presentation in a Corpus of English Writing. London: Routledge.Short, M. (2007) ‘Thought presentation 25 Years on’, Style 41(2).Short, M. (2013) ‘Discourse presentation in addition to speech ( in addition to writing, but not thought) summary’, Etudes de Stylistique Anglaise 4: 1-13. Watts, R. J. in addition to Trudgill, P. (eds) (2002) Alternative Histories of English. London: Routledge.

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