DISCOVERING A NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES VERY BIG: STATUS REPORT EVIDENCE FOR DARK MATTER EVIDENCE FOR DARK ENERGY

DISCOVERING A NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES VERY BIG: STATUS REPORT EVIDENCE FOR DARK MATTER EVIDENCE FOR DARK ENERGY www.phwiki.com

DISCOVERING A NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES VERY BIG: STATUS REPORT EVIDENCE FOR DARK MATTER EVIDENCE FOR DARK ENERGY

Pool, Bob, Features, Hollywood Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal DISCOVERING A NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES Jonathan Feng University of Cali as long as nia, Irvine Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at UCI 29 February 2008 29 Feb 08 Feng NEW UNIVERSE AT THE SMALLEST SCALES The Universe is very big. The smallest scales – atoms, nuclei, protons – are very small. What do these have to do with each other In fact, studies of the very big in addition to the very small have become intimately related, in addition to their connection is among the exciting frontiers in science. 29 Feb 08 Feng Particle Physics Condensed Matter Physics Biological Physics Astrophysics Cosmology Nuclear Physics Atomic Physics

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29 Feb 08 Feng 29 Feb 08 Feng VERY BIG: STATUS REPORT galactic cluster 1012 meters solar system galaxy 1017 meters 1023 meters > 1026 meters universe 29 Feb 08 Feng EVIDENCE FOR DARK MATTER disk ends here data expected Galaxies in addition to clusters of galaxies rotate too fast dark matter

29 Feb 08 Feng EVIDENCE FOR DARK ENERGY Hubble (1929): The universe is exp in addition to ing Supernovae (1998): in addition to accelerating dark energy 29 Feb 08 Feng EVIDENCE FOR BOTH Cosmic Microwave Background (2003): Universe has dark matter, dark energy, or both 1990 2003 29 Feb 08 APS April Meeting Feng Three measurements agree: Dark Matter: 25% Dark Energy: 70% Normal Matter: 5% Two must be wrong to change this conclusion COMPOSITION OF THE UNIVERSE

29 Feb 08 Feng COMPOSITION OF THE UNIVERSE 29 Feb 08 Feng VERY SMALL: STATUS REPORT electron 10-10 meters (thickness of human hair ~ 10-5 m) up quark down quark atom nucleus proton neutron 10-14 meters 10-15 meters < 10-18 meters 29 Feb 08 Feng MICROSCOPES Higher energies shorter wavelengths high resolution low resolution 29 Feb 08 Feng PARTICLE COLLIDERS E. O. Lawrence’s Cyclotron (1930s) Livingston Plot: Moore’s Law as long as Particle Colliders 29 Feb 08 Feng BASIC BUILDING BLOCKS 29 Feb 08 Feng Precise Confirmation Explains all measured properties of elementary particles down to 10-16 m. 29 Feb 08 Feng PROBLEM! vs. 29 Feb 08 Feng Known DM properties DARK MATTER Dark matter is unambiguous evidence as long as new particles 29 Feb 08 Feng CONSTRAINING THE NUMBER OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS Assume the Big Bang happened When the universe cooled, protons in addition to neutrons combined to as long as m light nuclei (He, Li) We can determine the number of light nuclei Precise agreement if protons in addition to neutrons are 5% of the Universe This is Big Bang nucleosynthesis, one piece of evidence as long as the Big Bang 29 Feb 08 Feng DARK MATTER CANDIDATES The observational constraints are no match as long as the creativity of theorists Masses in addition to interaction strengths span many, many orders of magnitude, but many of the favored c in addition to idates may be discovered soon HEPAP/AAAC DMSAG Subpanel (2007) 29 Feb 08 Feng Example: DM from Extra Dimensions (x, y, z, t) + w, v, Science fiction No – a hot topic at the interface of particle physics in addition to cosmology: How does gravity work What is our world made of What is the history ( in addition to future) of the universe 29 Feb 08 Feng Isaac Newton 1687: Space in addition to time are the static stage on which physical processes act 29 Feb 08 Feng Albert Einsten 1915: Spacetime is an active player: curves, exp in addition to s, shrinks, 29 Feb 08 Feng Small Dimensions The universe does not exp in addition to into space – space itself exp in addition to s Extrapolating back, space was small – the Big Bang Other dimensions could exist but still be small. In fact, string theory (quantum physics + gravity) requires 6 extra spatial dimensions. How can we test this possibility 29 Feb 08 Feng Extra Dimensions Suppose all particles propagate in extra dimensions, but these are curled up in circles. We will not notice them if the circles are very small. Pool, Bob Los Angeles Times Features, Hollywood Reporter www.phwiki.com

29 Feb 08 Feng Extra Dimensional Matter However, the momentum in the extra directions will be quantized. From our viewpoint, we will see this as new particles with masses m ~ 0, 1/R, 2/R, 3/R, 4/R, Each known particle has a copy at each mass. One of these could be the dark matter! mass 1/R 2/R 3/R 4/R 0 29 Feb 08 Feng Dark Matter Direct Detection DM CDMS in the Soudan mine ½ mile underground in Minnesota 29 Feb 08 Feng Indirect Detection Dark Matter Madlibs! Dark matter annihilates in — to a place — , which are detected by — . particles an experiment

29 Feb 08 Feng Dark Matter annihilates in the galactic center to a place photons , which are detected by Cerenkov telescopes . some particles an experiment 29 Feb 08 Feng Dark Matter annihilates in the center of the Sun to a place neutrinos , which are detected by AMANDA, IceCube . some particles an experiment AMANDA in the Antarctic Ice 29 Feb 08 Feng Dark Matter annihilates in the halo to a place positrons , which are detected by AMS on the ISS . some particles an experiment

SUMMARY For the first time in history, we have a complete picture of the Universe 29 Feb 08 Feng Dark matter in addition to dark energy require new discoveries at the smallest length scales 29 Feb 08 Feng Historical Precedent Eratosthenes measured the size of the Earth in 200 B.C. Remarkable precision (~10%) Remarkable result But just the first step in centuries of exploration 29 Feb 08 Feng ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Available at http://interactions.org/quantumuniverse/qu2006/

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