Dr Sanjaye Ramgoolam In collaboration with J. Bed as long as d in addition to C. Papageorgakis STRIN
Tsosie, Ray, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Dr Sanjaye Ramgoolam In collaboration with J. Bed as long as d in addition to C. Papageorgakis STRING THEORY arises from attempts to answer: 1) What is the world made of 2) How & Why does the world change in time Answers: 1) MATTER! E.g. Cars, Houses, Buildings, Planets All matter has Mass 2) Forms of matter exert Forces on each other in addition to they move under the influence of these as long as ces For example: the attraction which causes an apple to fall off a tree.
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So far: 2 Questions 2 Answers MATTER ; FORCE Matter comes in millions of different as long as ms: Apples, Oranges Cars – Hondas BMWs Garden Hoses, Grass, Trees Earth, Sun, Moon Galaxies, Planets, Stars All this diversity in fact comes from only a few hundred atoms: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen Each atom has a definite mass. Each atom has an approximate size of about: By going from the large to the tiny, we reduce the diversity of millions to around a hundred! Things simplify further if we look deeper into the atom: + Protons: Neutrons: – Electrons: Electrons orbit the nucleus which is composed of Protons in addition to Neutrons
The few hundred atoms reduce to only a h in addition to ful of fundamental objects Our Millions of Matter objects have been reduced to just 3 – Great! Un as long as tunately, the story starts to get more complicated: + up down strange charm bottom top Proton & Neutron Quarks red green blue Colours There are 3 generations of these quarks & each quark can have one of 3 different colours Likewise there are 3 generations of electron-like objects called leptons: electron electron-neutrino muon muon-neutrino tau tau-neutrino Leptons The idea of String Theory is that this diversity of quarks in addition to leptons comes from 1 String H O p n e u d s c t b e 1 String
What about Forces Hammer Force Fuel Force Astronomical Force All this diversity of as long as ces comes from: Gravity & Electromagnetism (& its 2 cousins) The Electric Force: Rub a pen against your sleeve & pick up pieces of paper. Rubbing – Separation of charge. Matter contains positive & negative charges: + + – – + – Repulsion Repulsion Attraction On a gr in addition to er scale: Lightning is caused by the Electric Force
The connection between Light & Charge runs deep: Particle physics teaches us that electrons repel because of the exchange of particles of light called photons Exchange Repulsive as long as ce Particle physics reduces both Matter & Force to one kind of Entity i.e. particles. Matter Forces electrons protons photons gravitons Force of Gravity The Physics of particles is governed by Quantum Mechanics Which brings about a Radical Change in our concepts of space. E.g. Cannot say electron is here in addition to going nowhere. Every position is assigned a number telling us how likely the electron is to be at that point. x
Quantum mechanical analogue of particle is here: The particle has maximum chances of being here in addition to electrons in definite orbits is replaced by of finding electron High chance Small chance Deep inside proton: In addition to Electricity/Magnetism we need to know about Strong & Weak as long as ce. The mediators of strong as long as ces are gluons. Quantum theory & particle physics do a great job of reducing diversity of matter & Electromagnetism, S & W as long as ces to a few particles! Forces E.M. Strong Weak ,g photons & gluons But gravity does not fit nicely into the Quantum Mechanical world. Applying Q.M. to gravitation gives infinities.
String Theory combines all as long as ces Strong,Weak, Gravitation, Electromagnetism & all matter electrons,protons,neutrons into one object a Matter Force e-, p+, n , gluon, graviton How does a string accomplish this All particles have energy. In classical physics: I. ; also Rest energy II. Photons have frequency (related to colour of light) Plancks constant Strings can vibrate in different ways For example: Guitar string Different vibration Different sound! Fundamental string Different vibration Different particles! electron photon graviton
In ordinary circumstances, we can underst in addition to the world by applying different as long as ces according to the problem at h in addition to . A unified Theory of matter & as long as ces is not just pretty – it is necessary as long as us to underst in addition to : Physics of the Early Universe Black Holes Universe is exp in addition to ing Every galaxy is facing away from every other E.g. Going back in time, All matter was crunched up in a very energetic state within a short distance. Under these conditions all as long as ces were equally important. Hence String Theory becomes necessary as long as us to underst in addition to what happened at after the Big Bang. And it makes a startling prediction: The world contains Extra Dimensions!
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