Drugs of Abuse Drug abuse Smoking HIV/AIDS Child abuse Violence Stress Cancer Dr

Drugs of Abuse Drug abuse Smoking HIV/AIDS Child abuse Violence Stress Cancer Dr www.phwiki.com

Drugs of Abuse Drug abuse Smoking HIV/AIDS Child abuse Violence Stress Cancer Dr

Reid, Betty, North Phoenix Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Drugs of Abuse Drug abuse Smoking HIV/AIDS Child abuse Violence Stress Cancer Drunk driving Heart disease Alcohol abuse Two Decades of Neurobiological Research Have Brought Us A New Underst in addition to ing of Drug Abuse in addition to Addiction, Their Complexity in addition to their Solutions

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We Know That Despite Their Many Differences, Virtually All Abused Substances Enhance Dopamine (neurotransmitter) Activity (particularly related to pleasure, motor, in addition to cognitive function For Example Other pathways also involved! Dopamine Pathways Functions reward (motivation) pleasure,euphoria motor function (fine tuning) compulsion perserveration decision making Serotonin Pathways Functions mood memory processing sleep cognition Neuronal structure (receiving) (sending)

/serotonin Vmat transporter DA/5HT How some drugs of abuse cause dopamine release: opioids narcotics (activate opioid receptors) nicotine (activate nicotine receptors) marijuana (activate cannabinoid receptors) caffeine alcohol (activate GABA receptors; an inhibitory transmitter) Drug : cocaine ritalin vesicle Neuronal terminal Release DA from vesicles in addition to reverse transporter Drug Types: Amphetamines -methamphetamine -MDMA (Ecstasy) Vmat transporter serotonin/ DA/5HT Source: Di Chiara in addition to Imperato Effects of Drugs on Dopamine Release Much greater Activity than any Other drug of abuse -causes neurotoxicity

Natural Rewards Elevate Dopamine Levels Implication: Elucidation of the mechanism of drug addiction will help to underst in addition to other addictive in addition to motivational behaviors/disorders Addiction in addition to tolerance can be synonymous

Pharmacodynamic mechanism of Tolerance Induction of Tolerance to Morphine OFC SCC MOTIVATION/ DRIVE (saliency) Brain Circuits Involved in Drug Addiction

Reward Pathways: Role of Opioids HOW DOES ADDICTION OCCUR Principles of Behavior Dynamics Behavior Tracts Compete as long as Expression Expression is Determined by (i) Dominance of Tracts, (ii) Strength of Prefrontal Cortex to Select, (iii) Relevance or saliency (orbitofrontal cortex) Activation of Dopamine reward pathway initiates a behavior track dopamine initiated (Miller & Cohen, Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 24 [2001] 167)

Principles of Behavior Dynamics How does a behavior become an addiction Prolonged Drug Use Changes the Brain in addition to In Fundamental in addition to Long-Lasting Ways We Have Generated A Lot of Evidence Showing That We Have Evidence That These Changes Can Be Both Structural in addition to Functional AND

Positron Emission Tomography BRAIN IMAGING Magnetic Resonance Imaging control cocaine abuser Decreases in Metabolism in Orbito Frontal Cortex (OFC) Volkow et al. Am. J. Psychiatry 148, 621 Source: McCann U.D. et al., The Journal of Neuroscience, 18(20), pp. 8417-8422, October 15, 1998. METH Suppresses Expression of DAT (note: duration of use/3-20 yrs; abstinent/ 1-4 yrs)

Reid, Betty Arizona Republic North Phoenix Reporter www.phwiki.com

Comparison Subject METH Abuser Dopamine Transporter Loss After Heavy Methamphetamine Use (PET analysis) Source: Volkow, N.D. et al., Am J. Psychiatry, 158(3), pp. 377-382, 2001. Dependence of Verbal Memory on Striatal DAT R = 0.70 p < 0.005 R = 0.64 p < 0.01 Interference recall Delayed recall Source: Volkow, N.D. et al., Am J. Psychiatry, 158(3), pp. 377-382, 2001. Compromises Cognitive Functions MOTOR FUNCTION Slowed gait Impaired balance Impairment correlates with damage to dopamine system Implication: Brain changes resulting from prolonged use of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine may be reflected in compromised cognitive in addition to motor functioning Is There Recovery Good News: After 2 years some of the dopamine deficits are recovering Bad News: Functional deficits persist What does this mean Reward System in Addiction Cocaine Food Activity of Reward System METH Alcohol controls treated More Less Relieve stress-related drug abuse RELAPSE No cure

Reid, Betty North Phoenix Reporter

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