Early History Outline Sudan Brief historical overview of pre-colonial period so that independence Presentation material in consideration of educators in addition to activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan latest version: March 11, 2006

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Early History Outline Sudan Brief historical overview of pre-colonial period so that independence Presentation material in consideration of educators in addition to activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan latest version: March 11, 2006

College of Notre Dame, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Sudan Brief historical overview of pre-colonial period so that independence Presentation material in consideration of educators in addition to activists developed by: UnderstandingSudan latest version: March 11, 2006 Outline Early history Christian kingdoms Islamization in addition to Arabization Turkiyya in addition to Mahdiyya British rule Independence Islamist rule: 1989-present Civil war in Southern Sudan Darfur Early History Numerous Nubian kingdoms along the Nile: Kingdoms of Kush (Cush), known from pottery in addition to Egyptian records Kush conquers Egypt (743bc in addition to rule until 644bc). Largest unified state in the world at the time. Assyrians drive Kush pharoah Taharqo back so that 4th cataract (Napata/Merowe) Arabs conquer Egypt 640ad. Treaty of baqt in 641ad alongside Nubia: Interpretation disputed, but seems so that involve tribute from Nubia so that Egypt

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Christian kingdoms in medieval times Alwa, Makuria in addition to Nobatia – three small kingdoms Christianized by 580ad Merge into Kingdom of Dongola, which survives as Nubian Christian kingdom until 1323ad; written records (in Greek) of emissaries from Church in addition to of relations alongside Caliphs in Damascus attest so that important power of Nubia, in addition to tombstones (in Greek) are found in archeological digs Famous frescoes discovered in churches along the Nile when UNICEF rescued archeological treasures after flooding by Aswan High Dam

Conversion so that Islam in addition to shift so that Arab identity/genealogies Process occurred slowly, no conquest or sharp turn, but continual (that is, over centuries, though alongside long periods of peace) conflict between Egypt in addition to Arabs crossing from Red Sea Holymen, merchants, in addition to camel herders came from Arabia in addition to the Maghreb (Egypt/Libya/Tunisia/Morocco) in addition to settled in Sudan Pilgrims came from West Africa on the overland route of the hajj Local rulers convert so that Islam, as does local population Kingdom of Sennar (Funj) A group known as the Funj conquer the knigdom of Alwa (capital at Soba on the Blue Nile) in 1504 Establish Kingdom of Sennar, rules much of central Sudan (but not Dongola) until 1821 Established court bureaucracy in addition to left a substantial amount of written records European travelers first visited in 1700s in addition to recorded court customs Egyptian conquest: 1821 Mohamed Ali ruler of Egypt, nominally a province of Ottoman Empire, but practically autonomous; Egyptian forces successfully conquer much of modern-day Sudan By many accounts, motive in addition to rule is purely ?extractive?: slaves, ivory, ostrich feathers, taxes are sent back so that Egypt Northern, Muslim, residents of Nile basin, in addition to European adventurers in addition to traders participate in exploitation of Southern regions Beginning of Syrian in addition to Lebanese diaspora in Sudan ? clerks in addition to military in Turkiyya, as Egyptian rule is known

Virtual Memory 2 Announcements Announcements Goals in consideration of Today $$ $$ Virtual Memory Summary Next Goal Next Goal Beyond Flat Page Tables Multi-level Page Tables Multi-level Page Tables Takeaway Next Goal Paging Paging Performance Page Table Review Page Table Example Performance Performance Next Goal Translation Lookaside Buffer (TLB) TLB Diagram A TLB in the Memory Hierarchy Takeaway Next Goal TLB Coherency Translation Lookaside Buffers (TLBs) TLB Parameters Takeaway Next Goal Recall TLB in the Memory Hierarchy Virtually Addressed Caching Virtual vs. Physical Caches Indexing vs. Tagging Typical Cache Setup Design Decisions of Caches/TLBs/VM Summary of Caches/TLBs/VM Summary of Cache Design Parameters Next Goal Role of the Operating System s brk (more memory) Context Switch (sharing CPU) Shared Memory Multiplexing Takeaway Paging Assumption 1 Thrashing (excessive paging) Thrashing Paging Assumption 2 More Thrashing Preventing Thrashing Takeaway Virtual Memory Summary Summary of Caches/TLBs/VM Summary of Cache Design Parameters

Mahdist revolt in addition to Mahdiyya: 1881-1898 The oppression of Egyptian rule (the Turkiyya) leads many so that join a holyman named Mohamed Ahmed, who declares himself so that be the Mahdi (?the expected one?) in revolt In 1885 defeat British forces in Khartoum The Mahdi dies shortly thereafter, in addition to successor Khalifa Abdullahi rules British conquest in addition to rule: 1898-1956 British conquer Mahdiyya in revenge in consideration of defeat in addition to death of British General Charles Gordon in Khartoum, in addition to so that protect southern flank of Egypt (now under British control) in addition to Suez Canal Rule Sudan in co-domini (the Condominium) alongside Egypt, though British rule through elite Sudan political Service Conquer Darfur in 1916 In reaction so that British rule, ?Sudanese? identity in addition to Sudanese nationalism is developed

British Rule North Sudan Indirect rule: Built up authority of different tribal leaders (Nazir in addition to omda in addition to sheikh) If no convenient tribe, then created one by amalgamating smaller tribes Cultivated close relationships alongside religious leaders (descendants of Mahdi in addition to Khatmiyya); the families of those leaders are still the most important ruling families in Sudan Promoted more schooling in the North ? Gordon College ? in addition to encouraged a growing Sudanese civil service so that replace Egyptians British Rule ? South Sudan More direct rule by British District Commissioner (so-called Bog Barons) Southern Policy initiated 1922 Ostensibly so that stop southern groups from domination by northerners English in addition to not Arabic became formal language Christian missionary education promoted Northern merchants kicked out Wearing of northern Sudanese jellabiya discouraged

Resources Ancient Nubian history metmuseum /toah/ht/02/afs/ht02afs.htm rumkatkilise /nubia.htm

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