Early Identification of Deafblind Children At The 2nd DbI Asian Conference



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Early Identification of Deafblind Children At The 2nd DbI Asian Conference

Colorado School of Mines, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Early Identification of Deafblind Children At The 2nd DbI Asian Conference 29th-31st January 2006, Dhaka Brahada Shanker Programmes Manager National Association in consideration of the Blind (Kerala) Scenario: The most ideal situation- routine vision / hearing tests in consideration of newborn babies & infants. The professionals, in early intervention programs play an important role in addition to need so that be as a Team. An Early Interventionist- Professional providing direct services so that infants (birth through 36 months) alongside disabilities in addition to their families. Impact of Socio-economic in addition to other conditions. People who work alongside infants having disabilities, must be ? a)familiar alongside the high risk factors (b)familiar alongside making referrals ?able so that access the services of consultants or certified teachers High Risk Factors Associated alongside Hearing / Vision Loss:ÿ úFamily history; úPrenatal exposure so that maternal infections (syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes) úPrematurity; úHypoxia; úCleft lip in addition to palate úCraniofacial anomalies (malformations of pinna, ear canal, absent philtrum; úProlonged use of ototoxic medications; úProlonged medical ventilation (10 days); úCertain syndromes (e.g., CHARGE, Down, Trisomy 13) úChildhood infections (bacterial meningitis, mumps, measles) úHead trauma úCerebral palsy úCertain neuro-degenerative disorders e.g. neuro-fibromatosis; *Congenital ophthalmological syndromes (optic nerve hypoplasia)

 Chu, Rosy Colorado School of Mines www.phwiki.com


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Identification of High Risk Factors ÿúMany high risk factors are associated alongside both visual impairment in addition to a hearing loss.ÿ úVision in addition to hearing are primary avenues in consideration of learning. úLanguage is developed during infancy, slight hearing loss can-distort speech input, impede the speech discrimination, comprehension abilities of infants. ÿ Children who are developmentally delayed or who have cerebral palsy, in addition to those alongside Down syndrome have a higher incidence of refractive errors in addition to other ophthalmological problems than non-disabled peers. úAt least 78% of children alongside Down syndrome have a hearing loss. ÿúThere are over 70 syndromes in which hearing loss in addition to visual impairment are likely so that occur together. ÿúResearch also indicates that 42 so that 90% of children alongside severe or profound disabilities have visual impairments. úAt least 20% of children who have severe in addition to multiple disabilities have a hearing loss úand over 33% of children alongside hearing loss have an additional disability. ÿ Indeed, infants alongside severe in addition to multiple disabilities are more likely so that have a vision impairment or a hearing loss than any other group of children. They are also likely so that require early intervention services so that facilitate their learning in addition to development. Systematic Approach- Review Medical Records ( Hearing) Review the audiological / ophthalmic report so that identify the types of hearing / vision tests, the results, the reliability of the results if indicated in the report, the recommendations of the audiologist/ ophthalmologist. 1.Was a hearing/vision loss identified? If so, what is the type in addition to degree of loss? 2.Were visual/ hearing aids recommended? If so, is the infant wearing them? If not, what is the reason? 3. If visual/ hearing aids were not recommended, why not? 4. When was the last hearing/ vision test conducted? When should the infant receive another test? 5. Were any recommendations made regarding specific interventions so that assist the infant’s use of hearing / vision or communication development? 6. How have these recommendations been implemented?

Gather information from families: Frequently, parents are the first so that notice that there is “something wrong” alongside the infant’s vision and/or hearing. About Hearing: Ask specific questions about the infant’s response so that sound. Parents observation about the baby’s responses so that their voices, household noises, in addition to other sounds? How loud are these sounds? How close do they have so that be so that the baby so that get a response? Does the infant seem so that prefer certain sounds? Does the infant demonstrate better responses so that sounds presented from particular directions (e.g., so that the left, right, above or below the infant’s ears)? Does the infant seem so that understand any spoken words? About Vision: Ask specific questions about the infant’s reaction so that visual stimuli. What have parents noticed about the infant’s visual attention in addition to responses so that their faces, familiar objects, in addition to bright or shiny toys? What seems so that get the infant’s visual attention? How close do they have so that be so that the baby so that get a response? Does the infant seem so that prefer certain types of visual stimuli? Does the infant demonstrate better visual responses in certain lighting or so that stimuli presented at particular positions (e.g., so that the left, right, above, or below the infant’s eyes)? High Risk Signs of Hearing Loss ÿ Atypical appearance of the face or ears: Malformations of the head or neck Malformations of the ears including lack of opening at ear canal (atresia) Frequent earaches or ear infections (otitis media) Discharge from the ears ÿ Atypical listening behaviours: Has few or inconsistent responses so that sounds Does not seem so that listen Does not respond so that caregivers calling his name Shows a preference in consideration of certain types of sounds

Epidemics on graphs: Thresholds in addition to curing strategies Thresholds in consideration of epidemics on graphs Model SIS epidemic (contact process) Motivation Some weaknesses of the model Problem description Infinite lattices Finite lattices Outline of rest of talk General graphs: fast recovery Fast die-out in addition to spectral radius Coupling proof: Branching random walk bound: Probabilistic interpretation: Path counting: Generalizations Slow die-out: Generalized isoperimetric constant Example: binary tree Example: lattice Slow die-out in addition to isoperimetric constant Coupling proof: Proof (continued): Summary: Complete graph Erd?s-R‚nyi random graph 1-dimensional lattice Star network Epidemic on the star Power law graphs Why? Instances of power laws Generative models in consideration of power laws Epidemics on power-law graphs Power-law random graph model (Chung in addition to Lu) Spectral radius of PLRG Epidemic on PLRG, ?>2.5 Epidemic on PLRG, 2 < ? < 2.5 Optimal curing strategies Optimal curing strategy Problem formulation A static scheme: cure proportional so that degree Can we do better? Expander graphs Limitations of arbitrary curing strategies Related methods: Contact tracing Modelling contact tracing Contact tracing on the star Open problems Open problems

Risks Contd. Atypical vocal development: Has limited vocalizations Has abnormalities in voice Shows a delay in language development Other behaviours: Pulls on ears or puts hands over ears Breathes through mouth Cocks head so that one side High Risk Signs of Visual Impairment Atypical appearance of the eyes: úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Drooping eyelid which obscures the pupil úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Obvious abnormalities in the shape or structure of eyes úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Absence of a clear, black pupil úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Persistent redness of conjunctiva (normally white) úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Persistent tearing without crying úÿÿÿÿÿÿ High sensitivity so that bright light indicated by squinting, closing eyes, or turning head away Unusual eye movements: úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Jerky eye movements (nystagmus) Absence of eyes moving together or sustained eye turn after 4 so that 6 months of age Risks Contd? Unusual gaze or head positions: úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Tilts or turns head in certain positions when looking at an object úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Holds object close so that eyes úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Averts gaze or seems so that be looking beside, under, or above the object of focus ÿ Absence of visually directed behaviours: úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Eye contact by 3 months úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Visual fixation or following by 3 months úÿÿÿÿÿÿ Accurate reaching in consideration of objects by 6 months

Every child has a right so that education. Early Identification will lead so that better intervention in addition to thus will pave the way in consideration of Need-based services, Overall development in addition to appropriate education. Thank you very much!

Chu, Rosy Managing Editor

Chu, Rosy is from United States and they belong to Managing Editor and work for Chino Valley Review in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.

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