ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS Rein as long as cement [Constraints in addition to Incentives] Social Traps $aving Money Minneapolis Energy Savings Plan

ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS Rein as long as cement [Constraints in addition to Incentives] Social Traps $aving Money Minneapolis Energy Savings Plan www.phwiki.com

ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS Rein as long as cement [Constraints in addition to Incentives] Social Traps $aving Money Minneapolis Energy Savings Plan

Michaels, Peter, News Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal ECOLOGICAL BEHAVIORS

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Rein as long as cement [Constraints in addition to Incentives]

Social TrapsTrapsCountertrapsTRAPS Short term R+ leads to increase in behavior, even if long term outcome is negative.A. Commons trap R+ R+ R+ R-(SP) (SP) (SP) (LG)P = Person G = GroupS = Short-term L = Long-term

TRAPS Short term R+ leads to increase in behavior, even if long term outcome is negative.A. Commons trap R+ R+ R+ R-(SP) (SP) (SP) (LG)P = Person G = GroupS = Short-term L = Long-term

COUNTER TRAPS Short term R- blocks behaviors that would lead to long-term positive outcomes.A. Missing Hero R- R- R- R+(SP) (SP) (SP) (LG)P = Person G = GroupS = Short-term L = Long-term$aving MoneyCOUNTER TRAPS Short term R- blocks behaviors that would lead to long-term positive outcomes.A. Missing Hero R- R- R- R+(SP) (SP) (SP) (LG)B. FenceR- R- R- R+(SP) (SP) (SP) (LP)P = Person G = GroupS = Short-term L = Long-term

Changing the Incentives or in Skinnerian terms: Add a counter rein as long as cer or change the delay of the rein as long as cement. Minneapolis Energy Savings PlanFree energy auditFree installation of needed technologyShare in $ from energy reductions First 3 years consumer pays utility 75% of savings. Years 4-5 50% in addition to > 5 years 0.Promoting Bus Ridership Through Token Rein as long as cement

Cautions/LimitationsAttitudes/values necessary but not sufficient Knowledge increases impact but still limited Have to also address incentives/constraintsIndividual choices severely constrainedby larger sociopolitical as long as ces. e.g. reduction in automobile withoutmass transit availability e.g. use of contraceptives without availability

Behaviors that dem in addition to personal sacrificeare notoriously unreliable. (think losingweight, quitting smoking)Why Rein as long as cement theory. Habitualnature of human behavior.Lifestyle changes/increased regulationvs. efficiency e.g., cut your car use in half vs.buy a Hybrid in addition to double fuel efficiency Economics in addition to Market AssumptionsInversion of necessity as the mother of inventione.g. marketing as inventing necessityProblem of externalities: costs of production in addition to delivery of services not fully captured in the market e.g. technological fix in addition to pollutionRational human decision maker e.g. Risk perception biasese.g. Problem of aggregation: does individual choice best choice as long as society (Adam Smith’s invisible h in addition to )e.g. cost/benefit analysis: temporal discounting (rein as long as cement); relative difficulty to assess benefits vs. costs

Michaels, Peter KUAT-FM News Director www.phwiki.com

Ecological Paralysis Environmental Helplessness Given critical importance of control, efficacy, difficulty/facility to engage in behavior, how can one person make a differenceNext 5 actions by achievable carbon emissions:Low-rolling resistance tiresCarpooling in addition to trip-chainingEfficient water heaterThermostat setbacksRoutine auto maintenance

Potential Carbon Reductions from Changes in Household Activities20% reduction of direct household emissions achievableRepresents 7.4% of total U.S. carbon emissionsEquivalent of reducing U.S. emissions from petroleum refining, iron in addition to steel, in addition to aluminum industries to zero

Two of the postcards sent to carefully selected executives of the H.J. Heinz CompanyJoel Rubin enjoys a swim with a friendNever doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.Margaret Mead

Michaels, Peter News Director

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