EE 448 Course Personnel Grading Policy Course Objectives Why RF

EE 448 Course Personnel Grading Policy Course Objectives Why RF www.phwiki.com

EE 448 Course Personnel Grading Policy Course Objectives Why RF

Kit, Borys, Film Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal EE 448 University of Southern Cali as long as nia Department of Electrical Engineering Dr. Edward W. Maby Class 1 11 January 2005 Course Personnel Dr. Edward W. Maby (Instructor) maby@usc.edu 740-4706 Office Hours: MW 1:00 – 2:00 PHE 626 Clint Colby ccolby@usc.edu Tyler Rather rather@usc.edu Grading Policy Midterm 1 25% 17 February Midterm 2 25% 24 March Homework 15% Final Exam 35% 10 May No Make-Up Exams Homework Conditions Borderline Grades Same “Curve” as long as Graduate Students

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Course Objectives Circuit Concepts as long as RF Systems Transmission Lines, Impedance Matching Noise in addition to Distortion Analysis Filter Design RF System Components Low-Noise Amplifiers, Power Amplifiers Mixers in addition to Oscillators Elementary Transmitter/Receiver Architectures in addition to Their Board-Level Implementation Why RF Ever-Growing Wireless Applications Personal Communication Systems Satellite Systems Global Positioning Systems Wireless Local-Area Networks Strong Dem in addition to as long as Wireless Engineers Digital is HOT Analog is COOL RF Design is an ART Emphasis Designing RF Integrated Circuits Some Engineers Designing With RF Integrated Circuits More Engineers Difficult to Satisfy Both Objectives

EE 448 Textbooks The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits Thomas H. Lee (required) Planar Microwave Engineering: A Practical Guide to Theory Measurements in addition to Circuits Thomas H. Lee Radio Frequency Circuit Design W. Alan Davis in addition to Krishna K. Agarwal Advanced RF Engineering as long as Wireless Systems in addition to Networks Arshad Hussain Microwave in addition to RF Design of Wireless Systems David M. Pozar High-Frequency Techniques Joseph F. White Some Good Advice Read the Syllabus Come to Class (Come to Class Early) Do the Homework (But Not One Hour Be as long as e a Deadline) (And Don’t Give Up Easily) Enjoy the Course ! Basic Radio Systems X Modulator IF Filter Mixer Local Oscillator B in addition to pass Filter Power Amplifier Data In X Local Oscillator B in addition to pass Filter Low-Noise Amplifier Mixer IF Filter IF Amplifier Demodulator Transmitter Receiver Data Out

Connecting the Boxes Antenna RF Link Between Transmitter in addition to Receiver (Marginal Issue as long as EE 448) Transmission-Line Connections Between Internal Transmitter/Receiver Components l = Velocity / Frequency Circuit Dimensions Comparable to l at High Frequencies (>> 1 GHz) “Distributed” Circuit Behavior Transmission-Line Model Two “Wires” with Uni as long as m Cross Section L (inductance), C (capacitance) per unit length Transverse Electromagnetic Fields Quasi-Static Solutions L = L (m, xy geometry), C = C (e, xy geometry), L C = m e R (resistance), G (conductance) per unit length (Consider Physical Mechanisms Later) Telegraphers Equations (Heaviside, 1880)

Power Implications Dissipated Power Change in Stored Linear Energy Density Time-Domain Solutions (No Loss) Wave Equation Forward Wave Reverse Wave Velocity No Wave Dispersion (Corruption) During Propagation Frequency Domain v in addition to i have Time Dependence Propagation Constant (Similar equation as long as i) R in addition to G may be w dependent

Freq.-Domain Solutions (V+ in addition to V- are Fourier Amplitudes) Similar as long as m as long as i (z,t); however, Characteristic Line Impedance (Zo Follows Directly from Transmission-Line Model) Forward Reverse Low-Loss Propagation Assume (OK to 10 GHz) Attenuation in dB Attenuation in nepers For Line Length l, Velocities in addition to Wavelength Fixed Phase Angle Phase Velocity: w Independent No Dispersion Group Velocity: (Applies to Modulated Signal) Wavelength:

Historical Remarks (Transatlantic Cable) First Telegrapher’s Equations: (No L or G) Prof. William Thomson (Later Lord Kelvin) 1854 Diffusion Equation (Applies to Most Ordinary IC Interconnects) Diffusion Solutions Unit-Step Input: For line length l, imax at Pulse Input: Diffusion “Velocity” Sinusoidal Input: “Velocity” Dispersion, High-Frequency Attenuation

Did Engineers Care Dr. Edward Orange Wildman Whitehouse M.D. Chief Electrician, Atlantic Telegraph Company, 1856 “In all honesty, I am bound to answer, that I believe nature knows no such application of that law; in addition to I can only regard it as a fiction of the schools, a as long as ced in addition to violent adaptation of a principle in Physics, good in addition to true under other circum- stances, but misapplied here.” On Thomson’s Results First Transatlantic Cable (1858) Whitehouse: Long Cable Requires Large-Voltage Input 2000-V “Stroke of Lightning” per Pulse (Obviously) Nahin, p. 34 What Happened Next Queen Victoria in addition to James Buchanan Exchange Messages Great Celebration, Public Pleased Cable Insulation Fails, Cable Dead, Public Angry Boston Headline: Was the Atlantic Cable a Humbug Investor: Was Cyrus Field an Inside Trader Further Experiments: High Voltage Not Necessary Whitehouse Fired Second Transatlantic Cable Successful (1866) Minimal Dispersion Telegraph Lines Make Poor Telephone Lines (Bell Fails to Propagate Voice Over Atlantic Cable – 1877) Heaviside (1887) Increase L by Adding Series Loading Coils at l/4 Intervals Improve Audio B in addition to width, But Suppress High Frequencies H88 St in addition to ard (88 mH at 6000-foot Intervals) Bad as long as DSL

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Dispersion – Skin Effect Skin Depth Real Part: Amplitude Distortion Imaginary Part: Phase Distortion Rise Time Dispersion – Dielectric Loss Dielectric Constant Has Real in addition to Imaginary Parts (Loss Tangent) Loss General Relation as long as Capacitance: Dielectric Loss Overtakes Skin-Depth Loss (f >> 1 GHz) Digital Digression Dispersion Promotes Inter-Symbol Interference Equalization at Receiver Correct as long as Group Delay Correct as long as Amplitude Distortion Difficult as long as Very-High Data Rates Pre-Emphasis (Pre-Distortion) at Transmitter Increase Pulse Amplitude After Transition MAX3292 ( as long as RS-485) See Widmer et al. (IBM) IEEE JSSC 31, 2004 (1996)

Why 50 Ohms Consider Coaxial Cable With Inner in addition to Outer Diameters a in addition to b Maximum Deliverable Power: Zo = 30 W Minimum Attenuation: Zo = 77 W Compromise: Zo = 50 W (75 W – Cable TV) (Lee, pp. 229-231) Microstrip Lines w h Substrate e Important Substrate Properties Relative Dielectric Constant Loss Tangent Thermal Conductivity Dielectric Strength Numerous Design Equations as long as Zo in addition to Effective e See Davis in addition to Agarwal, pp. 71-74; Chang, pp. 43-49 Calculator: http://mcalc.source as long as ge.net/ calc Design Formulas Define Then Assumes “Narrow” Lines

References Richard B. Adler, Lan Jen Chu, in addition to Robert M. Fano, Electromagnetic Energy Transmission in addition to Radiation (1960) Paul J. Nahin, Oliver Heaviside: The Life, Work, in addition to Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age (1988) Henry M. Field, History of the Atlantic Telegraph (1866) Kai Chang, RF in addition to Microwave Wireless Systems (2000) Richard E. Matick, Transmission Lines as long as Digital in addition to Communication Networks (1969) (Other than course texts)

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