EE C245 – ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2003 Roger Howe in addition to Thara Sri

EE C245 - ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2003 Roger Howe in addition to Thara Sri

EE C245 – ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2003 Roger Howe in addition to Thara Sri

Montgomery, Roberta, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal EE C245 – ME C218 Introduction to MEMS Design Fall 2003 Roger Howe in addition to Thara Srinivasan Lecture 1 Course Overview Lecture 1 Introduction to MEMS Lectures 2-4 Microfabrication Fundamentals Lectures 5-13 Forces, Mechanics, in addition to Transduction Lectures 14-18 Microsystem Fabrication Processes Lectures 19-23 Electronic Interface Design Principles Lectures 24-29 MEMS Design Case Studies Texts: 1. Stephen D. Senturia, Microsystem Design, Kluwer Academic Press, 2001 2. EE C245 Course Reader, Copy Central (Southside) What are the Goals of this Course Accessible to a broad audience minimal prerequisites Design emphasis exposure to the techniques useful in analytical design of structures, transducers, in addition to process flows Perspective on MEMS research in addition to commercialization circa 2003

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Related Courses at Berkeley EE 143 (Nathan Cheung) Microfabrication Technology ME 119 (Liwei Lin) Introduction to MEMS BioEng 121 (Luke Lee) Introduction to Micro in addition to Nano Biotechnology in addition to BioMEMS ME C219 – EE C246 (Al Pisano) MEMS Assumed background as long as EE C245: senior st in addition to ing in engineering or physical/bio sciences Course Mechanics Lectures: Tuesday, Thursday 2:10-3:30 203 McLaughlin Hall (205 McLaughlin as long as overflow) Webcast at Homework: weekly assignments distributed on Thursdays in addition to due the following Thursday at 5 pm in the EE C245 box near 275 Cory Hall Exam: Wednesday, October 15, 6:30-8:00 pm Sibley Auditorium, Bechtel Engineering Center Term Project: one-page proposal due October 23 six-page paper due December 8, with poster presentation (dates/rooms TBA) Course Mechanics (Cont.) Office Hours Roger Howe, 231 Cory Hall, Mondays 1:15 – 3:00 Thara Srinivasan, 465 Cory Hall, Fridays 10:30 – 12:00 Credit breakdown (approximate) 15% homework 25% midterm exam 60% final project (40% written paper, 20% poster)

Lecture Outline Reading Senturia: Chapter 1 Today’s Lecture MEMS defined Historical tour of MEMS MEMS in addition to nanotechnology MEMS Defined Micro ElectroMechanical Systems Batch fabrication (e.g., IC technology) Energy conversion: electrical to in addition to from non-electrical Ultimate goal: solutions to real problems, not just devices English problems: plural or singular Common oxymoron: “MEMS device” Why is batch fabrication a critical part of the definition Dimensional Ranges 1 m < L < 300 m lateral dimensions Surface micromachined structures “classic MEMS” 300 m < L < 3 mm Bulk silicon/wafer bonded structures still call them MEMS in addition to cover them in this course 10 nm < L < 1 m Nano electromechanical systems NEMS (overlap with MEMS some coverage in this course) What aren’t MEMS The Denso micro-car: circa 1991 Fabrication process: micro electro-discharge machining It runs! Cost Experimental Catheter-type Micromachine as long as Repair in Narrow Complex Areas Japanese Micromachine Project 1991-2000 Batch Fabrication Technology Planar integrated circuit technology 1958 - 1. Thin-film deposition in addition to etching 2. Modification of the top few m of the substrate 3. Lateral dimensions defined by photolithography, a process derived from offset printing Result: CMOS integrated circuits became the ultimate “enabling technology” by circa 1980 Moore’s Law Density ( in addition to per as long as mance, broadly defined) of digital integrated circuits increases by a factor of two every year. Moore’s Law Gordon E. Moore, Cramming more components onto integrated circuits,” Electronics, April 19, 1965. Update: G. E. Moore, “No exponential is as long as ever but we can delay ‘ as long as ever,’” IEEE Int. Solid-State Circuits Conf., Feb. 10, 2003. Original as long as m: transistor density doubles every year since 1962 d = (Y – 1962)2 A Microfabricated Inertial Sensor MEMSIC (Andover, Mass.) Two-axis thermal-bubble accelerometer Technology: st in addition to ard CMOS electronics with post processing to as long as m thermally isolated sensor structures Note: I’m a technical advisor to MEMSIC a spinoff from Analog Devices. Other Batch Fabrication Processes Historically, there aren’t that many examples outside of chemical processes However, that’s changing: Soft (rubber-stamp) lithography Parallel assembly processes enable low-cost fabrication of MEMS from micro/ nano components made using other batch processes “heterogeneous integration” Microassembly Processes Parallel assembly processes promise inexpensive, high-volume hetero-geneous integration of MEMS, CMOS, in addition to photonics Parallel Pick- in addition to -Place, Chris Keller, Ph.D. MSE 1998 Michael Cohn, Ph.D. EECS, 1997 Fluidic Self-assembly Uthara Srinivasan, Ph.D., Chem.Eng. 2001 Wafer-Level Batch Assembly Many challenges: > interconnect > glue A Brief History of MEMS: 1. Feynmann’s Vision Richard Feynmann, Caltech (Nobel Prize, Physics, 1965) American Physical Society Meeting, December 29, 1959: “What I want to talk about is the problem of manipulating in addition to controlling things on a small scale. In the year 2000, when they look back at this age, they will wonder why it was not until the year 1960 that anybody began seriously to move in this direction.” “ And I want to offer another prize – $1,000 to the first guy who makes an operating electric motor–a rotating electric motor which can be controlled from the outside in addition to , not counting the lead-in wires, is only 1/64 inch cube.” he had to pay the electric motor prize only a year later 2. Planar IC Technology 1958 Robert Noyce – Fairchild in addition to Jack Kilby (Nobel Prize, Physics, 2000) -Texas Instruments invent the integrated circuit By the early 1960s, it was generally recognized that this was the way to make electronics small in addition to cheaper Harvey Nathanson in addition to William Newell, surface-micromachined resonant gate transistor, Westinghouse, 1965 Did Harvey hear about Richard Feynman’s talk in 1959 I don’t think so

Why Didn’t MEMS Take Off in 1965 Resonant gate transistor was a poor on-chip frequency reference metals have a high temperature sensitivity in addition to don’t have a sharp resonance (low-Q) specific application didn’t “fly” In 1968, Robert Newcomb (Stan as long as d, now Maryl in addition to ) proposed in addition to attempted to fabricate a surface micromachined electromagnetic motor after seeing the Westinghouse work Energy density scaling as long as this type of motor indicated per as long as mance degradation as dimensions were reduced Materials incompatibility with Stan as long as d’s Microelectronics Lab research focus on electronic devices became a major issue Another Historical Current: Silicon Substrate (Bulk) Micromachining 1950s: silicon anisotropic etchants (e.g., KOH) discovered at Bell Labs Late 1960s: Honeywell in addition to Philips commercialize piezoresistive pressure sensor utilizing a silicon membrane as long as med by anisotropic etching 1960s-70s: research at Stan as long as d on implanted silicon pressure sensors (Jim Meindl), neural probes, in addition to a wafer-scale gas chromatograph (both Jim Angell) 1980s: Kurt Petersen of IBM in addition to ex-Stan as long as d students Henry Allen, Jim Knutti, Steve Terry help initiate Silicon Valley “silicon microsensor in addition to microstructures” industry 1990s: silicon ink-jet print heads become a commodity When the Time is Right Early 1980s: Berkeley in addition to Wisconsin demonstrate polysilicon structural layers in addition to oxide sacrificial layers rebirth of surface micromachining 1984: integration of polysilicon microstructures with NMOS electronics 1987: Berkeley in addition to Bell Labs demonstrate polysilicon surface micromechanisms; MEMS becomes the name in U.S.; Analog Devices begins accelerometer project 1988: Berkeley demonstrates electrostatic micromotor, stimulating major interest in Europe, Japan, in addition to U.S.; Berkeley demonstrates the electrostatic comb drive

Polysilicon Microstructures UC Berkeley 1981-82 R. T. Howe in addition to R. S. Muller, ECS Spring Mtg., May 1982 Polysilicon MEMS + NMOS Integration UC Berkeley 1983-1984 R. T. Howe in addition to R. S. Muller, IEEE IEDM, San Francisco, December 1984 Transresistance amplifier Capacitively driven in addition to sensed 150 m-long polysilicon microbridge Polysilicon Electrostatic Micromotor Self-aligned pin-joint, made possible by con as long as mal deposition of structural in addition to sacrificial layers Prof. Mehran Mehregany, Case Western Reserve Univ.

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Electrostatic Comb-Drive Resonators W. C. Tang in addition to R. T. Howe, BSAC 1987-1988 New idea: structures move laterally to surface C. Nguyen in addition to R. T. Howe, IEEE IEDM, Washington, D.C., December 1993 Analog Devices Accelerometers Integration with BiMOS linear technology Lateral structures with interdigitated parallel-plate sense/feedback capacitors ADXL-05 (1995) Courtesy of Kevin Chau, Micromachined Products Division, Cambridge Surface Micromachining Foundries M. S. Rodgers in addition to J. Sniegowski, Transducers 99 (S in addition to ia Natl. Labs) 1. MCNC MUMPS technology (imported from Berkeley) 1992- 2. S in addition to ia SUMMiT-IV in addition to -V technologies: 1998 – 4 in addition to 5 poly-Si level processes result: more universities, companies do MEMS

Self-Assembly Processes Prof. J. Stephen Smith, UC Berkeley EECS Dept. Alien Technologies, Gilroy, Calif. chemically micromachined “nanoblock” silicon CMOS chiplets fall into minimum energy sites on substrate nanoblocks being fluidically self-assembed into embossed micro-pockets in plastic antenna substrate More Recent History Mechanical engineers move into MEMS, starting with Al Pisano in 1987 exp in addition to applications in addition to technology beyond EE’s chip-centric view DARPA supports large projects at many US universities in addition to labs (1994 – 200) with a series of outst in addition to ing program managers (K. Gabriel, A. P. Pisano, W. C. Tang, C. T.-C. Nguyen, J. Evans) Commercialization of inertial sensors (Analog Devices in addition to Motorola polysilicon accelerometers 1991 ) 108 by each company by 2002 Microfluidics starts with capillary electrophoresis circa 1990; micro-total analysis system (-TAS) vision as long as diagnosis, sensing, in addition to synthesis Optical MEMS boom in addition to bust: 1998 – 2002. MEMS in addition to Nanotechnology I Richard Feynmann’s 1959 talk: “But it is interesting that it would be, in principle, possible (I think) as long as a physicist to synthesize any chemical substance that the chemist writes down. Give the orders in addition to the physicist synthesizes it. How Put the atoms down where the chemist says, in addition to so you make the substance.” Eric Drexler, 1980s: visionary promoting a molecular engineering technology based on “assemblers” had paper at first MEMS workshop in 1987 Early 1990s: U.S. MEMS community concerned that “far-out” nanotech would be confused with our field, undermining credibility with industry in addition to government

SEMs of a Nanogap DNA Junction Top View (a) (b) (c) Luke Lee in addition to Dorian Liepmann, BioEng. Jeff Bokor, EECS Opportunities in Blurring the MEMS/NEMS Boundary Aggressive exploitation of extensions of “top-down” planar lithographic processes Synthetic techniques create new materials in addition to structures (nanowires, CNT bearings) Self-assembly concepts will play a large role in combining the top-down in addition to bottom-up technologies Application: mainstream in as long as mation technology with power consumption being the driver “Beyond CMOS” really, extensions to CMOS > 2015 Non-volatile memories Communications

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