Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Presentation Overview Objective PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric PVDF

Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Presentation Overview Objective PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric PVDF

Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Presentation Overview Objective PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Piezoelectric PVDF

Pramuk, Bill, Freelance Columnist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Eelectric Energy Harvesting Through Piezoelectric Polymers Formal Design Review Don Jenket, II Kathy Li Peter Stone Presentation Overview Project Goals Choice of Materials Choice of Processing Techniques Device Architecture Future Tests Revised Timeline Objective DARPA Objective: Convert mechanical energy from a fluid medium into electrical energy. Fluid flow creates oscillations in an eel body Creates strain energy that is converted to AC electrical output by piezoelectric polymers AC output is stored in addition to /or utilized 3.082 Objective: Harness enough power from air flow to operate a L.E.D.

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PVDF- Poly(vinylidene fluoride) C C H H F F n Properties Chemically Inert Flexible High Mechanical Strength Production React HF in addition to methylchloro as long as m in a refrigerant gas Polymerization from emulsion or suspension by free radical vinyl polymerization References: , Accessed on: 3-9-04; Piezoelectric SOLEF PVDF Films. K-Tech Corp., 1993. Piezoelectric PVDF Molecular Origin Fluorine atoms draw electronic density away from carbon in addition to towards themselves Leads to strong dipoles in C-F bonds Piezoelectric Model of PVDF (Davis 1978) Piezoelectric activity based upon dipole orientation within crystalline phase of polymer Need a polar crystal as long as m as long as permanent polarization Reference: Davis, G.T., Mckinney, J.E., Broadhurst, M.G., Roth, S.C. Electric-filed-induced phase changes in poly(vinylidene fluoride). Journal of Applied Physics 49(10), October, 1978. b-phase (piezoelectric) a-phase (anti-parallel dipoles) Piezoelectric PVDF Poled by the Bauer Process Biaxially stretch film: Orients some crystallites with their polar axis normal to the film Application of a strong electric field across the thickness of the film coordinates polarity Produces high volume fractions of b-phase crystallites uni as long as mly throughout the poled material Selected Properties of 40 mm thick bioriented PVDF Table courtesy of K-Tech Corporation Reference: Piezoelectric SOLEF PVDF Films. K-Tech Corp., 1993.

Tensile Testing of PVDF Cross-sectional Area of the Film Tested: 1 cm X 40 microns = 4 X 10-7 m2 Measured strain: .063 Force at .063 strain: 3.95 lbs. Elastic Modulus Calculated: 2.56 GPa E = s e-1 Clamp Rubber PVDF Electrodes in addition to Wires Desired Properties Electrodes High Conductivity Flexibility Won’t oxidize Wires Ease of Attachment Flexibility The Process Attach Electrodes using RF Magnetron Sputtering Sputter 40 nm thick Gold electrodes on sample Attach 3 mil copper wire with silver paste Schematic of Sputtering Vacuum Pump Vacuum Pump Main Chamber Load-Lock Chamber Sample Holder; Sample faces down Sample Holder Rotates Sputter Guns Load-Lock Arm Adapted From: Twisselmann, Douglas J. The Origins of Substrate-Topography-Induced Magnetic Anisotropy in Sputered Cobalt Alloy Films. MIT Doctoral Thesis, February, 2001

Sputtering Apparatus Load-Lock Chamber Vacuum Pump Main Chamber Sample Holder Sputtering Target “Eel Tail” Schematic Top View Side View Front View Cu Wire 6-10 cm 2 cm 6-10 cm 2 cm 0.04 mm Cu Wire Silver paste Gold Electrode

Air Flow Testing of Eel Tail For cost purposes, used unpoled PVDF Thickness of PVDF film: 74 mm. Can visually inspect eel oscillations Wave as long as ms Estimate flexure in addition to strain Tested 2 cm by {5,6,7,8,9,10} cm tails Fan PVDF Copper “Fin” Length= 5-10 cm 2 cm Air Flow Testing of Eel Tail 2cm x 6cm PVDF Air Flow Testing of Eel Tail 2cm x 10cm PVDF

Piezoelectric Response in Air Flow 2cm x 6cm Piezoelectric PVDF Estimation of Piezoelectric Response V = 3/8 (t/L)2 h31 dz, t= thickness; L = Length; dz = bending radius in addition to h31 = g31(c11 + c12)+ g33c13 g31 = 610-12/11eo [Vm/N] c11 = 3.7 GNm-2 L = 6 cm g33 = -0.14 [Vm/N] c12 = 1.47 GNm-2 t = 40 mm dz = 3 cm c13 = 1.23 GNm-2 Equation taken from: Herbert, J.M., Moulson, A.J. Electroceramics: Materials, Properties, Applications. Chapman in addition to Hall: London, 1990. Piezoelectric Constants taken from: Roh, Y. et al. Characterization of All the Electic, Dielectric in addition to Piezoelectric Constants of uniaxially oriented poled PVDF films. IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectics in addition to Frequency Control. 49(6) June 2002. If we model the tail as a cantilever: Estimation of Piezoelectric Response Estimated voltage: 0.7322 V Voltage Measured in Air Field: 0.207 V Voltage required to bias Ge-doped diode: 0.2 V Sources of Error in Estimation Cantilever does not account as long as oscillation Wave as long as m of eel is not a cantilever; looks more like a sinusoid.

Rectifier Design ACin Reference: as long as Proposed Integrated Design Fan Rectifier Storage Circuit Electronics Housing Future Research Dynamic Mechanical Testing (DMA) – Oscilloscope Quantified wave as long as ms (peak amplitude) Frequency Continued Air Stream Testing Possible water system (time permitting) Environmental Protection stiffens the eel Underst in addition to ing vortex shedding

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Pramuk, Bill Freelance Columnist

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