Electroconvulsive therapy – a shocking topic The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the nervous system Outline i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history

Electroconvulsive therapy - a shocking topic The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the nervous system Outline i. Electroconvulsive therapy - a history i. Electroconvulsive therapy - a history www.phwiki.com

Electroconvulsive therapy – a shocking topic The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the nervous system Outline i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history

Dabovich, Chris, Online Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Electroconvulsive therapy – a shocking topic Kerri Scott Melrose High School http://www.Tuberose.com/Graphics/Electroshock The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on the nervous system Electroconvulsive therapy, or ECT, is still used in the united states in addition to throughout the world. Outline Electroconvulsive (Shock) therapy – a history ii. The Neuron iii. The Synapse iv. Neurotransmitters v. The mechanism of electroconvulsive therapy

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i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history Convulsions in addition to electricity have been known to reduce symptoms in people with neurological disorders as long as many years – hippocrates saw that insane patients showed reduced symptoms after suffering from convulsions brought on by malaria. – In the 1500s a jesuit missionary wrote of ethiopians using electricity to “expel devils.” paracelsus, a swiss physician, used camphor to produce seizures to cure insanity. www.popartuk.com There is an account in ad 47, of a physician using an electric eel to cure headaches of the roman emperor claudius. i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history in the 1700s Individuals treated with hellebore went into convulsions in addition to coma in addition to were cured of “mania” in addition to “raving madness.” In 1792 John birch used electric shocks to the head to cure patients. In the 1800s there were reports of insanity being cured with electric shock. In 1927 insulin coma therapy was invented by manfred sakel. It involved giving insulin in order to lower levels of glucose, producing coma in addition to convulsions. mathematician john nash (a beautiful mind) was given this treatment in the 1960s. http://ensign.ftlcomm.com http://www.uta.edu/stuact/images/excel/beautiful-mind In 1932 ladislaus von Meduna used camphor to treat schizophrenia. He later used metrazol since it was faster. i. Electroconvulsive therapy – a history In 1937 two neurologists studying epilepsy, ugo cerletti in addition to lucio bini, decided to use electric shock to induce seizure without the side effects of metrazol. The idea to apply shock therapy to humans came to cerletti when he saw pigs being shocked into a coma be as long as e being slaughtered. http://www.cchr.org Find out about what type of patient gets ect today in addition to answer question 1 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ECT 91E41 – In 1938 the first electroconvulsive therapy treatment was tested on a schizophrenic in rome. He had a full recovery. – In 1940 the first electroconvulsive therapy treatment was given in the united states.

The mechanism of ect is not fully understood, but in order to underst in addition to some of the explanations it is important to know something about neurons in addition to how they work. As you move through the presentation, follow the links to answer questions on your study guide. ii. The Neuron Consists Of: dendrites Cell body nucleus Axon terminal myelin axon Dendrites – cell body – axon – axon terminal – myelin More neurons These neurons are from mice in addition to contain a gene, isolated from jellyfish, that makes them fluoresce in uv light. These pictures are from studies done by Dr. Joshua R. Sanes of the department of molecular in addition to cellular biology at harvard university. A section of the brain – the dendrites are at the top of the image A closer look at the cell bodies in addition to their extensions

More neurons The axon terminals – yellow is the pre-synaptic neuron in addition to red is the post-synaptic organ (striated muscle) A closer look at the boxed section from the image on the left – there is a synapse at every place where yellow overlaps red Questions About the neuron Use the links below to find out more about the parts of a neuron http://www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/anatomy/brain/Neuron.shtml Answer Questions 2-7 on your study guide http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chnt1.html http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/cells.html Action potential Neurons are normally at rest. They do not fire unless they have a proper stimulus Once stimulated, the neuron will send an impulse. This is called an all or nothing response. Check out this website to see how an impulse is generated in addition to answer questions 8-13 on your study guide www.tvdsb.on.ca/ 2.webloc

iii. The Synapse Neurons are capable of sending a message to another neuron or another organ (muscle, gl in addition to ) Neurons do not actually touch – There is a space between them called the synaptic cleft http://www.mtsu.edu/~studskl/synapse2.GIF receptor neurotransmitter Post-synaptic neuron Pre-synaptic neuron vesicle mitochondrion Synaptic cleft An actual synapse from a presentation by Dr. Venkatesh N. Murthy Presynaptic neuron vesicles Postsynaptic neuron iii. The synapse The action potential can not cross the synaptic cleft, so www.tvdsb.on.ca/.webloc How does the message get from one neuron to another Check out this website to find out in addition to answer questions 14-18 on your study guide.

iv. neurotransmitters There are several types of neurotransmitters in addition to not all of them are the same. Some of them excite the next cell, depolarizing it, while some inhibit a cell in addition to prevent depolarization. Check out another animation of how the synapse works in addition to answer question 19 on your study guide. www.wisc-online.com/.webloc Some neurotransmitters This is a very short list of the many neurotransmitters. These are some of the most well known. micro.magnet.fsu.edu/.webloc Check out this site to answer question 20 in addition to see some cool images. You have to click on the images to get in as long as mation about the neurotransmitters Some neurotransmitters You may have noticed that some of the neurotransmitters, like norepinephrine can be both excitatory or inhibitory. this depends on: The type of receptors on the post synaptic cell How the receptors actually work some receptors directly open an ion channel (like Acetylcholine exciting skeletal muscle cells), but some lead to further activity in the cell which may cause a different response (like acetylcholine inhibiting cardiac muscle cells).

What do neurons in addition to neurotransmitters have to do with electroconvulsive therapy The mechanism of ect There are several possible explanations as to how ect works, in addition to there is evidence as long as all of them. The one that seems to be most accepted however is the neurotransmitter theory Neurotransmitter theory This explanation is based on evidence that the electricity sensitizes serotonin receptors Supporters also state that ect desensitizes receptors that help reabsorb dopamine in addition to norepinephrine, causing them to stay in the synapse Why might ect help patients who are depressed Use the knowledge you have gained in this presentation to answer this question in space 21 of your study guide People with depression seem to have fewer serotinin receptors or do not make enough of the neurotransmitter

Other theories Anticonvulsant – the brain learns to resist seizures, slowing abnormally overactive brain circuits Neuroendocrine – causes hypthalamus to release chemicals that change the chemistry of the entire body Brain damage – memory loss in addition to disorientation lead to the illusion of problems being gone Extension activity The bioethics of ect – is this a safe, effective procedure or should it be banned “The Shock Shop, Mr. McMurphy might be said to do the work of the sleeping pill, the electric chair in addition to the torture rack. It’s a clever little procedure, simple, quick, nearly painless it happens so fast, but no one ever wants another one. Ever.” – Ken Kesey (excerpt from One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest) Many people have read or seen one flew over the cuckoo’s nest in addition to have a negative view of shock therapy, believing that it creates zombie – like patients. In addition, ernest hemingway’s suicide has been attributed to his ect treatment. “What is the sense of ruining my head in addition to erasing my memory in addition to putting me out of business It was a brilliant cure but we lost the patient.” – Ernest Hemingway http://www.filmsite.org/onef.html

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It is estimated that in the united states, 100,000 people per year undergo ect treatments in addition to that there are about 1,300 treatments per week. Since the 1960s, the methods of ect have changed somewhat in addition to it seems to be safer. It is known to produce some memory loss, but seems to be the most effective treatment as long as people with severe depression. “ECT has a higher success rate as long as severe depression than any other as long as m of treatment.” -Dr. Dimitris Popolos So, should this treatment be banned You decide. Research the effects of ect in addition to write a persuasive essay to express your opinion. Here are some websites to get you started. Make sure you cite all resources used in addition to be sure they are good sources. http://www.psych.org/research/apire/training-fund/clin-res/index.cfm www.healthyplace.com/.webloc www.medhelp.org/lib/ect.h 790F4 www.nmha.org/infoctr/fact 791C0 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ele 791C4 serendip.brynmawr.edu/.webloc serendip.brynmawr.edu/ 1.webloc www.ect.org/index.shtml.webloc

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