# Energy from the Sun Energy What is the Sun Size in addition to Distance of the Sun

## Energy from the Sun Energy What is the Sun Size in addition to Distance of the Sun

Richards, Tim, Operations Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Energy from the SunEnergyEnergy is a quantity that describes how much as long as ce an object has experienced over a distance or can potentially experience in a given situation.Energy can be transferred from one object to another, or trans as long as m from one as long as m to another. It can neither be created nor destroyed. Kinetic Energy: energy that an object has because of its motionPotential Energy: energy that an object has because of its positionThe Sun IS NOT an average, yellow star. What is the Sun

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The Sun is 109 times the diameter of Earth Over 1,000,000 Earths could fit inside the Sun. The Sun is 150 million kilometers away from Earth. It takes light 8 minutes to travel to Earth from the Sun. This distance is defined as 1 Astronomical Unit (AU)EarthMoonSize in addition to Distance of the SunMass of the SunRotation of the SunGalileo saw sunspots that appear to move across the face of the Sun.Conclusion: the Sun rotates on its axis.Rotation rate: 27 days (equator) to 31 days (poles)Movie made from Galileos sunspot drawings from June 2  July 8, 1613

Luminosity of the SunThe Spectrum of the SunLow Energy WavesHigh Energy WavesVisible light is a tiny fraction of the Electromagnetic SpectrumGamma rays-billions of waves per inchRadio waves-up to miles-long wavelengthsSurface Temperature5800 K Thermal Spectrum

Composition of the SunThe spectrum of the Suns light reveals its composition.The Sun produces all the colors of the rainbow in roughly equal amounts, which is white light. If the Sun were yellow, then white T-shirts would look yellow in the mid-day sunshine.When you observe the Sun safely, by projecting its image through a pinhole camera or a telescope, you see that it is white.Dont stare directly at the Sun! The UV radiation can damage your eyes.The Sun is WhiteMagnetic FieldWhen an external magnetic field is present, single energy levels in an atom/ion/molecule split into additional levels.The amount of splitting in addition to the new energy levels present depend on the strength in addition to direction (north or south) of the external magnetic field. Examining the solar spectrum as long as the Zeeman Effect allows us to map the magnetic field on the surface of the Sun.

Looking at the Sun in different wavelengths of light reveals different parts of the Sun.Radio light: Wavelength = 17.6 cmSee radiation from Suns atmosphere, CoronaThe Suns LayersLooking at the Sun in different wavelengths of light reveals different parts of the Sun.Visible light (white light): Wavelength = 400-700 nmSee radiation from Suns surface, PhotosphereThe Suns LayersLooking at the Sun in different wavelengths of light reveals different parts of the Sun.Visible light (H-): Wavelength = 656.3 nmSee radiation from layer just above Suns surface, ChromosphereThe Suns Layers

Looking at the Sun in different wavelengths of light reveals different parts of the Sun.Extreme Ultraviolet light: Wavelength = 30.4 nmSee radiation from Suns atmosphere, CoronaImage from STEREO missionThe Suns LayersLooking at the Sun in different wavelengths of light reveals different parts of the Sun.Extreme Ultraviolet light: Wavelength = 17.1 nmSee radiation from Suns atmosphere, CoronaImage from STEREO missionThe Suns LayersThe Suns Layers

The Different Parts of the SunDuring a total eclipse of the Sun, the very bright Photosphere is blocked in addition to the Suns outer atmosphere becomes visible (in white light). We call it the CoronaSpacecraft, like SOHO in addition to STEREO, place a disk in front of their cameras to create an eclipse. They are then able to take images with a larger view of the Suns CoronaIt extends far out into the Solar System, in fact we live in it!Hydrostatic EquilibriumThere is no evidence that the Sun has changed its size, temperature, or luminosity in billions of years. We there as long as e conclude that it is in a state of equilibrium.The as long as ces acting on it are:Gravity from its massPressure from its temperatureThese as long as ces must be in balance to create equilibrium. Internal StructureUse the Doppler Effect to measure motions on the surface.Seismic (acoustic) waves can be mapped out by their appearance on the surface. Just like seismology on Earth.Helioseismology reveals changes in density in addition to pressure at different depths inside the Sun.

The Different Parts of the SunCoreT = 15,700,000 KDensity = 162 g/cm3Radiative Zone Energy transported by light T = 10,000,000 KConvective Zone Energy transported by convectionPhotosphere Visible surface Far less dense than Earths atmosphere T = 5,800 K Sunspots: T = 4,000 KChromosphere Thin layer above photosphere Produces most of Suns UV light T = 10,000 K Corona Tenuous, extends out millions of kilometers Emits X-rays T = 1,000,000 KEnergy SourceThe Suns luminosity has been sustained as long as billions of years (geologic in addition to fossil evidence suggest at least 3.8 billion years). What energy source could last that longChemical Burning: If the Sun were made of coal, burning (oxidizing: chemical potential energy thermal energy) it could only sustain the luminosity as long as ~1,000 years.Energy SourceThe Suns luminosity has been sustained as long as billions of years. What energy source could last that longGravitational contraction: compression of gas from gravity heats the gas. gravitational potential energy thermal energy (r in addition to omized kinetic energy of the gas particles) original source of energy as long as the Sun. could only sustain the Suns luminosity as long as ~10 million years. Current energy source as long as Jupiter in addition to Saturn.

Nuclear Fusionmost common nuclear reaction as long as Sun-like stars.4 protons a helium nucleus, positrons, neutrinos, in addition to gamma raysmass of the 4 protons > the mass of the helium nucleus, the positrons, in addition to the neutrinos combined. mass gamma ray photons:proton-proton chainthe energy equivalent to the missing mass by the equation E = mc2 R in addition to om WalkPhotons bounce off of electrons  imparting energy to the plasma (pressure in addition to temperature increase)Plasma is very dense in core in addition to radiative zoneCan take 10,000 -100,000 years as long as the energy generated in the core to escape to the surface. Extra Slides

Age of the SunWe think that the Sun in addition to Solar System as long as med from a single interstellar cloud all at the same time. So the oldest rocks in the Solar System should gives us an approximate age as long as the Sun as well.Rocks are dated using their relative abundances of radioactive elements in addition to their decay products.The oldest rocks on Earth are 4.6 billion years old as are the oldest meteorites ever examined.So the Sun is at least 4.6 billion years old. The oldest fossils of life on Earth are 3.8 billion years old. So the Sun must have reached equilibrium by at least that age.It burns through fuel at the rate of its luminosity. We figure that about less than 1% of its mass is available to convert to energy through fusion. This gives a total lifetime of the Sun at about 10 billion years. SunThe Sun is Above AverageMost stars in the Universe are small, cool, low-mass dwarfs. The Sun is larger, hotter, in addition to more massive than these.There are stars that are much larger, very hot, in addition to many times more massive than the Sun. But these stars are quite rare compared to the Sun or the low-mass stars.The Sun is also not median, mid-range, or most frequent (mode) in the measures of size, temperature, brightness, or mass.

Nuclear Fusionneutrinos () have very little mass, in addition to travel near the speed of light. They hardly react with anything. They can escape directly from the core, unlike photons. Hence we can observe them to probe directly the conditions in the core of the Sun.To do this we build giant tanks filled with different liquid compounds in addition to put them far underground. Since neutrinos hardly react to anything we expect to detect only 1 neutrino per day interacting with the liquid in the tank! After decades of experiments weve now actually detected the amount that we expect. But found that we were detecting all the types of neutrinos, not just those produced by the proton-proton chain. This means that neutrinos must have some mass in order to be able to oscillate between the different types. Suns OrbitThe Suns orbit is 3D.It takes the Sun about 250 million years to orbit the Galaxy. So the Sun has completed about 18 orbits since its birth (4.5 billion/ 250 million).

## Richards, Tim Operations Manager

Richards, Tim is from United States and they belong to KNST-AM and they are from  Tucson, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Richards, Tim deal with the subjects like Business; City/Metropolitan News; Entertainment; International News; Local News; National News; Regional News

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