Energy & Nuclear Science Energy – driving as long as ce of change Recognizing energy Mechanical Work Properties of PE in addition to KE

Energy & Nuclear Science Energy – driving as long as ce of change Recognizing energy Mechanical Work Properties of PE in addition to KE www.phwiki.com

Energy & Nuclear Science Energy – driving as long as ce of change Recognizing energy Mechanical Work Properties of PE in addition to KE

Sipple, Wendy, Founding Editor/Publisher has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Nuclear Technology Energy – the driving as long as ce of change Natural Units – atoms, molecules, moles, in addition to electrons Atoms – the tiny wonders Atomic Nuclei – small frontier to explore Radioactive Decay – transmutation of nuclides Particles – frozen energy states Nuclides – composite particles of nucleons Nuclear Reactions – changing the hearts of atoms Nuclear Fission – energy as long as war in addition to peace Nuclear Fusion – an ideal energy source Ionizing Radiation – radiation detection in addition to measurements Radiation Safety – safety in nuclear technology Nuclear Technology – applications of nuclear technology Energy & Nuclear Science The most important aspect of nuclear technology is the large amount of energy involved in nuclear changes, radioactivity, nuclear reactions, radiation effects etc. Thus, the energy concept is very important be as long as e we start to explore nuclear science. Nuclear energy associates with mass according to Einstein’s as long as mula, E = m c 2 but what does it mean E = m c2 Energy – driving as long as ce of change Change is the only constant in the universe. Changes: winds, rains, storms, thunders, as long as est fires, earthquakes, waves, plant growth, food decay, ocean tides, as long as mation in addition to melting of ice, combustion, in addition to growing old more example please. What are physical in addition to non-physical changes What causes changes Heat elasticity gravity electromagnetic wave Identify changes in addition to energy in everyday events

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Recognizing energy Energy plays an important part And it’s used in all this work; Energy, yest energy with power so great, A kind that cannot shirk. If the farmer had not this energy, He would be at a loss, But it’s sad to think, this energy Belongs to a little brown horse. A school verse by Richard Feynman Nobel laureate as long as physics Photo of Feynman in addition to Murray Gell-Men Mechanical Work Mass: m kg Acceleration: a m s-2 Force: F = m a N (Newton = kg m s-2) Distance: s m Work: W = F s J (N m or kg m2 s-2) Potential energy Wp = m g h unites Kinetic energy Wk = ½ m v 2 work out unites 0.1 kg 1 N Think in addition to deal with quantity of energy Properties of PE in addition to KE PE in addition to KE are state functions – depending on only the final conditions not on how the conditions were arrived (path). Changes of PE in addition to KE depend on only the initial in addition to final conditions, not on the paths. PE in addition to KE are inter-convertible, but not destroyed. Do you know any other properties Energy in amusement parks Explain state functions

The Temperature Concept Objective comparison of energy flow potentials – temperature scales. 0th law of thermodynamics Two bodies each equal in temperature to a third body are equal in temperature to each other. Maxwell (19th century) Temperature scales led to the concept of heat The science of heat – thermodynamics. Hot, Cold in addition to Heat Temperatures (hot in addition to cold) indicate potential as long as heat flow. They are intensive properties as are color, electrical potentials, concentrations heat capacity, pressures, etc. Temperature scales made hot-cold measurements quantitative, but they are not quantities to be added or subtracted. Heat, transfers from object to object, elusive. When heat is transferred between objects, their temperatures change. Heat is an extensive property as are electric charge, length, mechanical work, mass, mole, time, etc. Heat is measurable in quantities, units being btu, cal, kcal, J, kJ, kwh, etc. An amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1.00 g of water from 288.5 to 289.5 K is defined as 1.00 calorie or 4.184 J. What are the differences between hot-cold temperature in addition to heat Differentiate temperature from heat The Concept of Heat Heat is evidently not passive; it is an expansive fluid which dilates in consequence of the repulsion subsisting among its own particles Joseph Black (1728-1799) – is a typical additive quantity is different from hot inter-convertible to mechanical work (same units)

The Energy Concept Inter-conversion – discovered unexpectedly by Ben Thompson (1753-1814) while making cannons. Conversion factor was determined by J. Joule (1818-1889) 1 cal = 4.184 J This entity was called ef as long as t, living as long as ce, in addition to travail, be as long as e the term energy was coined by Thomas Young (1773-1829) Inter-conversion of Heat in addition to Work Joule in his 20s Energy Heat in addition to work are really energy being transferred. Energy stored in a body is neither heat nor work. Kinetic energies of gases are proportional to their temperature. Once absorbed, the nature of heat has changed. Motion of gas molecules gave rise to pressure – Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782). Rudolf J.E. Clausius (1822-1888), James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), W. Thomson, in addition to Ludwig E. Boltzmann (1844-1906), studied the relationship between temperature in addition to energy of molecular motion. Many elegant theories have been developed as a result. Forms of Energy Heat Mechanical work Waves (sound etc) Electromagnetic radiation (waves) Electrical (charge transfer) Chemical Mass (nuclear) Other driving as long as ces Benefit chi determination encouragement inspiration love law motivation resolution scarcity What are the properties of energy in these as long as ms in addition to how to evaluate them

Electric Energy Electric energy, E Joule potential, V Volt charge, q Coulomb E = V q E = hg m 1 J = 1 CV = 1 N m etc Be able to evaluate quantities of electric energy Simple electric energy calculations Potential difference, V, current i ( = q / t ) in addition to resistance R. V = i R (Ohm’s law) Power P, (I/o) P = V q / t = V i ( i = current ) = R i 2 (Joules law) Energy in addition to power E = P t ( unit kilo-watt-hour) DC in addition to AC Electric energy, E Joule potential, V Volt charge, q Coulomb E = V q E = hg m 1 J = 1 CV = 1 N m etc eV – a special energy unit Electron-volt, eV, is a very special energy unit, although we have not discussed electricity in addition to electrons yet. Charge of an electron = 1.6022e-19 C (one of the fundamental physical constants). The energy required to increase the electric potential of an electron by 1 V is 1 eV = 1.6022e-19 J (J = C V). Other units used in nuclear energy are keV (1000 eV) MeV (1e6 eV) GeV (1e9 eV) Be able to inter-convert energy quantities in various units

What is light Wave properties Particle properties Massless Interference Newton ring diffraction Law of reflection law of refraction move in straight line Electromagnetic Radiation Electromagnetic radiation is transfer of energy by EM waves via no medium(). EM waves travel in empty space at constant speed (c = 2.997925e8 m/s constant). EM waves are characterized by wavelength (or frequency ) Light is part of the EM spectrum. EM radiation has a very wide spectrum ( or ). The EM Spectrum Long-wave Radio Broadcast radio b in addition to Short wavelength radio Infrared VISIBLE Ultraviolet X-rays Gamma rays The EM Radiation Spectrum > 600 m 600 – 200 m 200 m – 0.1 mm 0.1 – 0.0007 mm 0.7 – 0.4 um 0.4 um – 1 nm 1 nm – 0.1 pm 0.1 nm Remember the order of these regions

The EM Wave Spectrum The Visible Spectrum Double rainbow Photons, E = h Max Planck assumption, E = h , was shown to be true by Einstein’s photoelectric experiment. Speed of light, c = 3e8 m s-1 wavelength, frequency of light, = c / Planck constant, h = 6.62619e-34 J s energy of a photon E = h . A photon is a bundle of energy, in addition to it’s like a particle of light. Use wave to show in addition to . Max Planck (1858-1947) Nobel Prize (1918)

The Photon Story Max Planck assumption, E = h, was shown to be true by Einstein’s photoelectric experiment. Explain the photoelectric effect. Photon Energy Typical red light, = 4.69e14 s-1 (Hz), = c / = 3e8 m s-1 / 4.69e14 s-1 = 640 nm Wave number = 1 / = 1 / 6.40e11 m = 1.56e6 m-1 E = h = 6.62619e-34 J s 4.69e14 s-1 = 3.1 x 1019 J (1 eV / 1.6 x 10-19 J) = 1.9 eV per photon find wavelength or frequency of a violet photon in addition to carry out similar evaluations. Laser Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER)

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Chemical Energy enthalpy Underst in addition to these terms on energy or enthalpy Bond energy energy of reaction energy related to temperature energy related to states melting, vaporization, phase transition mass loss in chemical reactions Relative in addition to Zero Masses Special theory of relativity (by Einstein) shows that mass m of a particle with velocity, v relates to the mass when v = 0, which is called zero mass, mo. Mass in addition to Energy Einstein further showed that the relativistic mass, m, of a particle exceeds its rest mass mo (m = m – mo). The increase in kinetic energy E in addition to increase in mass are related by: E = m c 2 or E = m c 2 Implication: Mass in addition to energy are equivalent. Mass can be expressed in energy unit in addition to vice versa. 241800 J = 241800/c 2 = 2.7 x 10-12 kg = 3 ng

Power – rate of energy transfer The SI unit as long as power P is watt named after James Watt, 1 watt = 1 J s–1 Work out by heart 1 kilowatt-hour = – J = – cal = – BTU The law of Conservation of Energy Energy converts among various as long as ms without any loss or gain. Energy cannot be created nor destroyed. Conversions of energy in various as long as ms have definite rates. These rates never change, in addition to we have energy conversion factors. 1 amu = (12 kg/k mol)/12 = (1 kg/k mol)/(6.022e26 (k mol)-1) = 1.661e-27 kg = 931.5 MeV 1 amu = 1/12th of mass of a C12 atom Some conversion factors 1 eV = 1.602 x 1019 J 1 eV/molecule = 23045 cal/mol 1 MeV = 1.602 x 1013 J 1 amu = 1.66043 x 1031 J = 931.4812 MeV 1 cal = 4.184 J 1 atm L = 101.3 J 1 J = 1 coulombvolt 1 joule = 107 ergs 1 BTU = 252 cal These factors are in the lecture notes. Be able to do unit conversion.

Energy crisis in addition to social problems These issues affect us all, in addition to please apply basics in addition to human natures to solve these problems so your generation will live happily hereafter.

Sipple, Wendy Founding Editor/Publisher

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