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Environmental Policies in addition to Resulting Outcomes ? An Analysis of T
College for Financial Planning, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Environmental Policies in addition to Resulting Outcomes ? An Analysis of Transport Sector Case Studies in India Mahesh Patankar (mpatankar@iitb .in) Anand Patwardhan (firstname.lastname@example.org .in) Shailesh J Mehta School of Management Indian Institute of Technology ? Bombay CMU ? February 2004 Outline Context Indian transport policy / regulatory framework Research questions in addition to literature review Framework outline Environmental policy ? technology link Technology hierarchy Framework quantification Case studies (description in addition to analysis) Going beyond?. Context Sharp increase in public in addition to private road transport, leading so that higher energy use in addition to environmental impacts (Numbers in figure ? all types in addition to entire country) Deteriorating local air quality is a matter of concern ? leads so that policy response in consideration of environmental control Source: MoST, India, NEERI, India Transport sector contributes so that 29 so that 35 % GHG emissions in India!
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Indian transport policy framework – structure Central Government Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) State Government State Pollution Control Board Regional Transport Office Indian transport policy framework – functions Central Government Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) Ministry of Surface Transport (MoST) Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas (MoPNG) State Government State Pollution Control Board Regional Transport Office (Designs new road projects, guidelines on vehicle industry standards) (Sets emission standards ? vehicular in addition to ambient air quality) (licensing in addition to supply chain of petroleum products) (Air quality monitoring, reports so that the MoEF) (Regulates tail-pipe emission permits) Research goal: Understand process of policy formation, effect of alternate fuel policies in addition to its success parameters Understand the differences in ?success parameters? using case studies Questions: Can the environmental policies alone ensure diffusion of clean fuel in India What are the compelling conditions that ensure ?success rate? of clean fuel policies Can a framework be established that will act like a ?policy tool? What determines the success of policy?
Summary in addition to gaps Components of framework Outcomes ? environmental benefits, market development Technology diffusion, market response Framework policy ? tech change Outcome (Environmental benefits, market, technology) Policy stage Use stage Ancillary infrastructure Requires in addition to involves technology, systems in addition to regime Individual decision Public perception Decision making Regulators Stage 1 Stage 2 Actors, responsible in consideration of use Set of enablers (standards)
Chapter 1 Measurements Solution
Framework explanation Stage 1 ? Policy stage acts as the ?Policy-push? so that facilitate change An enabling stage, may not be sufficient Stage 2 ? Provides ?Market-pull? so that implement in addition to achieve results of the policies Ensures availability of ancillary infrastructure ? represented as a technology regime alongside clearly defined determinants Determinants are complementary, interdependent Individual decisions dependent on availability of ancillary infrastructure Technology System Technology-based regime Technology Product / Process Changes in end-use, in one application area, environmental benefits Increase in infrastructure, complementing technologies, defined application area New business, developing institutions, governing organizations, involvement of banks, defined market, complementing applications Technology hierarchy – ancillary infrastructure (References: Kemp 1997, Jacobsson, 2000) Examples of technology – regimes
Transport regime around a fuel Components of regime changes Example: Fuel use policy Inspection in addition to maintenance Retrofit standardization Interventions by courts Policy in addition to standardization Indicators: Directives in addition to standards Example: Lower vehicular pollution Health benefits Societal benefits Indicator: Public health Mortality Example: Fuel availability Engine retrofit techniques Technology in addition to technology system Indicators: Complementary technologies, regimes Example: Infrastructure companies, user benefits, increasing businesses in addition to investments Developing institutions, markets Indicators: Increase in indigenous mfg, ROI in consideration of users in addition to suppliers Framework variables – quantification Mumbai: A clear link evident between the court regulations in addition to the increasing vehicles in addition to sale Outcome of environmental policy ? Case Studies
Outcome of environmental policy ? Case Studies Distinct policy steps so that ensure supply of CNG as a fuel Steady increase in the vehicles converted so that CNG, conversion of buses so that CNG at a larger scale than that in Mumbai Mumbai: CNG sale increased many-folds, but not sufficient so that cater so that the entire fleet New Delhi: CNG sale increased many-folds, but not sufficient so that cater so that the entire fleet Outcome of environmental policy ? Case Studies Outcome of environmental policy ? Case Studies Success rate of policy / implementation – observations – Supply constraint resulted in chaotic conditions in both the cities (media reports, CNG demand forecast in consideration of the vehicle fleet ? much more than the actual supply) – Policies alone did not provide the sufficiency condition in consideration of ?use?, though it resulted in conversion / engine retrofits – Drivers pushing CNG sales up include pricing policies resulting in economic benefits so that users, lesser queuing time at the filling stations, availability of conversion kits, financing
Outcome of environmental policy ? Case Studies New Delhi Mumbai Specific policy measure Policy thrust alongside Court intervention Enabling condition Evolution of technological system Shift from import so that local suppliers Evolving markets Evolution of public-private partnerships User benefits Economic benefits alongside fuel switch-over Differences in ?fleet-management?, refueling time Evolving enterprises Corporatized public Foreign direct entities investment in a joint venture company Technology / systems Similar supply chain in both cities, higher level of quality assurance in Mumbai Political will Political support in both the cases Case studies used in validation: CNG use in Mumbai in addition to New Delhi, Unleaded gasoline in India in addition to Thailand, Multi-point fuel injection Clear evidence of interaction alongside the policy in addition to a clearly identified technology regime Discussion ? case studies – Proposed framework validated alongside qualitative data – Case studies in other developing countries may show different features – Data gaps on the improvement in ambient air quality – Other factors like industrial in addition to commercial sector would have a bearing on improved air quality – Case studies represent ?specific? fuel switching options, in consideration of a comprehensive fuel switching policy, framework will have so that be different Limitations Other merits of the case studies: Use in other socio-technical experiments, learning in consideration of other options in alternate fuel use
Proposed case studies 1. Passive solar in developing countries 2. Rainwater harvesting in India 3. Green buildings program in Asia Going beyond?.
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