Eruption in addition to Shedding of Teeth Mixed Dentition: Presence of both dentitions Figu

Eruption in addition to Shedding of Teeth Mixed Dentition: Presence of both dentitions Figu www.phwiki.com

Eruption in addition to Shedding of Teeth Mixed Dentition: Presence of both dentitions Figu

Bonin, Adam, Featured Writer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Eruption in addition to Shedding of Teeth Mixed Dentition: Presence of both dentitions Figure from Ten Cate’s Oral Histology, Ed., Antonio Nanci, 6th edition Tooth eruption is the process by which developing teeth emerge through the soft tissue of the jaws in addition to the overlying mucosa to enter the oral cavity, contact the teeth of the opposing arch, in addition to function in mastication – there as long as e it is a continuous process Phases of tooth eruption Preeruptive phase: All movements of primary in addition to permanent tooth germs (crowns) from time of their early initiation in addition to as long as mation to the time of crown completion (ends with early initiation of root as long as mation) Eruptive phase: Starts with initiation of root as long as mation in addition to made by teeth to move from its position within bone of the jaw to its functional position in occlusion. Has an intraosseous in addition to extraosseous compartments. 4 stages: root as long as mation, movement, penetration in addition to occlusal contact Posteruptive phase: Takes place after the teeth are functioning to maintain the position of the erupted tooth in occlusion while the jaws are continuing to grow in addition to compensate as long as occlusal in addition to proximal tooth wear

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Remember that during all these 3 stages is the progression that happens from primary to permanent dentition which involves the shedding (exfoliation) of primary teeth Dentition: Diphodont: two sets of dentition in humans Primary vs Secondary dentition Deciduous vs Permanent dentition Mixed dentition: presence of two dentition Teeth in primary dentition are smaller in addition to fewer in number than permanent dentition to con as long as m to the smaller jaw size Primary dentition: ~ 2 to 6 years of age Mixed dentition: ~ 6 to 12 years Permanent dentition: > 12 years Source: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4.pdf Pre-eruptive tooth movement: Why do developing crowns move constantly in the jaws during the preeruptive phase To place teeth in position as long as eruptive tooth movement To alleviate the problems of jaw growth which allows second molar to move backward in addition to anterior teeth to move as long as ward Developing crown move constantly during the preeruptive phase as they respond to positional changes of the neighboring crowns in addition to to changes in the m in addition to ible in addition to maxilla Permanent teeth develop lingual to the incisal level of the primary anterior teeth in addition to later as primary teeth erupt, the permanent crowns are lingual to the apical 3rd of primary roots Permanent premolars move from occlusal level of primary molars to a position enclosed within the primary tooth roots All movements in the preruptive phase occur within the crypts of the developing crowns

Two types of tooth movement in pre-eruptive phase: Total bodily movement Movement where one part remains fixed while the rest continues to grow leading to change in the center of the tooth germ Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition Source: http://www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/dental/d9903/lectures/lecture4.pdf

Figure from Ten Cate’s Oral Histology, Ed., Antonio Nanci, 6th edition Eruptive Tooth Movement 4 major events occur: Root as long as mation. Space is required as long as root as long as mation Proliferation of epithelial root sheath Initiation of root dentin in addition to pulp Increase in fibrous tissue of the follicle Movement. Occurs incisally or occlusally The main reason as long as movement is so that the roots can as long as m normally Reduced enamel epithelium fuses in addition to contacts the oral epithelium Penetration of the tooth’s crown tip through the fused epithelial layers allowing entrance of the crown into the oral cavity Intraoral incisal or occlusal movement of the erupting tooth continues until clinical contact with the opposing crown occurs

Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition

Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition Clinical crown: During eruption, the exposed crown extending from the cusp tip to the area of the gingival attachment Anatomic crown: Entire crown, extending from cusp tip to the cementoenamel (CE) junction

Histology – changes that occur in tissues overlying erupting teeth Degeneration of connective tissue (decrease in blood vessels in addition to degeneration of nerves) immediately overlying the erupting teeth Eruption pathway – altered tissue area overlying the teeth Macrophages destroy cells in addition to fibers by secreting hydrolytic enzymes Gubernacular cord: The connective tissue overlying a successional tooth that connects with the lamina propria of the oral mucosa by means of a str in addition to of fibrous connective tissue that contains remnants of dental lamina Gubernacular canal: Holes noted in a dry skull noted lingual to primary teeth in jaws that represent openings of gubernacular cord As the successional teeth erupt, gubernacular canal widens enabling tooth to erupt Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition Figure from Ten Cate’s Oral Histology, Ed., Antonio Nanci, 6th edition Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition

Figure from Ten Cate’s Oral Histology, Ed., Antonio Nanci, 6th edition Stages of tooth eruption Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition Histology – Surrounding tissues The surrounding fibers change from being parallel to the tooth surface to bundles that are attached to the tooth surface in addition to extending towards the periodontium (bone) The periodontal ligament have contractile properties in addition to changes drastically during eruption During eruption, collagen fiber as long as mation in addition to turnover are rapid enabling fibers to attach in addition to release in addition to attach in rapid succession. Some fibers may attach in addition to reattach later while the tooth moves occlusally as new bone as long as ms around it in addition to the fibers will organize in addition to increase in number in addition to density as the tooth erupts

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Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition Histology – Underlying tissues As the tooth moves occlusally it creates space underneath the tooth to accommodate root as long as mation Fibroblasts around the root apex as long as m collagen that attach to the newly as long as med cementum Bone trabeculae fill in the space left behind as the tooth erupts in the pattern of a ladder which gets denser as the tooth erupts After tooth reaches functional occlusion periodontal fibers attach to the apical cementum in addition to extend into the adjacent alveolar bone Essentials of Oral Histology in addition to Embryology. James Avery, 2nd edition

The rate of tooth eruption depends on the phase of movement Intraosseous phase: 1 to 10 µm/day Extraosseous phase: 75 m/day Environmental factors affecting the final position of the tooth: Muscular as long as ces Thumb-sucking Mechanisms of Eruptive Tooth Movement Eruption is a multifactorial process The accepted theories of tooth eruption are: Root Formation. Should be an obvious cause of tooth eruption. But studies have not provided evidence as long as this. If a tooth that is continuously erupting (rodent incisor in addition to guinea pig molar) is prevented the root still as long as ms by causing bone resorption. Rootless tooth still erupt, some teeth erupt more than the total length of the roots in addition to the teeth still erupt after completion of root as long as mation. There as long as e root as long as mation is accommodated during eruption in addition to may not be the cause of tooth eruption. One point of importance is that, the tissue beneath the growing root resists the apical movement of the developing root. This resistance results in the occlusal movement of the tooth crown as the root lengthens. Bone Remodeling. Major proof is when a m in addition to PM is removed without disturbing its follicle or you wire down the tooth germ, an eruptive pathway still as long as ms within bone as osteoclasts widen the gubernacular canal. If the dental follicle is also removed no eruption path develops. So not sure if bone remodeling plays a significant role but is involved. One point to remember: Bone as long as mation also occurs apical to the developing tooth Dental Follicle. Studies have shown that the reduced dental epithelium initiates a cascade of intercellular signals that recruit osteoclasts to the follicle. By providing a signal in addition to chemoattractant as long as osteoclasts, it is possible that the dental follicle can initiate bone remodeling which goes with tooth eruption. Teeth eruption is delayed or absent in animal models in addition to human diseases that cause a defect in osteoclast differentiation. Mechanisms of Eruptive Tooth Movement

Osteopetrosis – Defect in Osteoclasts

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