Experiments on Neutrino Nature in addition to Mass Outline How to weigh neutrinos Single Beta Decay Double Beta Decay

Experiments on Neutrino Nature in addition to Mass Outline How to weigh neutrinos Single Beta Decay Double Beta Decay www.phwiki.com

Experiments on Neutrino Nature in addition to Mass Outline How to weigh neutrinos Single Beta Decay Double Beta Decay

Lewis, Lois, Music Director/Evening On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Experiments on Neutrino Nature in addition to Mass Challenges as long as Non-accelerator Neutrino Physics Experiments Y. Ramachers, University of Warwick Outline How to weigh neutrinos Current Experiments: an Overview Next-generation proposals Summary of merits in addition to challenges How to weigh neutrinos Neutrino Oscillations (see talks from yesterday: B. Kayser, Th. Schwetz, G. Ross in addition to B. Scott) Cosmology (see following talk: S. King) Direct Beta Decay Endpoint Double Beta Decay

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Single in addition to Double Beta Decay – fundamentally different playing fields Single in addition to Double Beta Decay – fundamentally different playing fields Single Beta Decay: Double Beta Decay: Single Beta Decay Two complimentary experimental approaches Charge Spectrometer: KATRIN Calorimeter: MARE Source: Tritium, Q-value 18.6 keV Filter electron energies Count electron events above filter threshold Energy resolution target: 0.93 eV Mature technology: Mainz/Troitsk limit achieved 2.2 eV Sensitivity target: 0.2 eV http://www-ik.fzk.de/~katrin/index.html Source: Rhenium-187, Q-value 2.5keV Source = Detector: Cryogenic micro-calorimeter Energy resolution: 10-20 eV Mature technology: TES thermometry Sensitivity target: Test Mainz/Troitsk 2.2 eV Long-term: MARE-2, 0.2 eV http://mare.dfm.uninsubria.it/

Anything beyond 0.2 eV Motivation as long as new ideas + Cosmic neutrino background detection, see M. Blennow in addition to ref. therein, astro-ph/0803.3762 A. Giuliani, PIC2005, Prague Double Beta Decay 2nbb 0nbb Allowed in addition to observed Forbidden – Interesting ! Neutrinos must be massive Majorana particles Experimental signature Experimental Techniques A. Nucciotti, IDM2004, Edinburgh

Success in addition to further improvements: HowTo’s On the way to 100meV: Missing factor 2-5 gained by 16-625 fold increase in exposure (Mt) in addition to /or 16-625 fold reduction of background, B On the way to 10meV : Extrapolate existing experiments over 5-6 orders of magnitude !!! Not at all hopeless, but a challenge ! HowTo 2 Energy resolution in addition to Irreducible background (2nbb) Need good DE Need good e Need high enrichment, a Measurement time limited Background in addition to Mass count most Choose appropriate detector technology (e, DE, a, t, cost as long as M) in addition to work on B ! 0nbb experiments overview from R. Saakyan, SLAC Exp. Seminar, Jan. 2008 Matrix elements from MEDEX’07 or provided by experiments 0nbb experiments overview

Heidelberg-Moscow Exp. 5 high-purity germanium detectors, enriched in 76Ge Total active mass: 10.96 kg, total exposure: 71.7 kg years Main background from U/Th in the set-up: 0.11 c/(keV kg y) at Qbb H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus et al., NIM A522 (2004) 371 Heidelberg-Moscow Exp. Full data set: 71.7 kg years After pulse-shape analysis: 51.4 kg years A peak at 2039 keV = Q-value as long as 0nbb No counter-argument brought as long as ward anymore: Test evidence experimentally ! Evidence peak Comment on Gaussian peaks in addition to low statistics Scan of total Signal in addition to Background counts Blind-analysis reveals the subtle challenge: Efficiency without human intervention GERDA Phase I testing evidence claim; 13 counts on 3 bkgr give efficiency as long as any(!) Fit: 17.4% HD-Mos. evidence: 28 counts on 10 bkgr efficiency as long as Fit: 18.7% D.Y. Stewart in addition to YR, to be submitted

CUORICINO 44 detector modules Total mass: 40.7 kg Cryogenic calorimeter, TeO2 crystals Operating Temp. about 10 mK C. Arnaboldi et al., hep-ex/0802.3439 CUORICINO F. Ferroni, ICATTP, Villa Olmo, Oct. 2007 CUORICINO F. Ferroni, ICATTP, Villa Olmo, Oct. 2007

NEMO-3 R. Arnold et al., hep-ex/0410021 Tracking Detector: 6.9 kg 100Mo, 0.9 kg 82Se ( as long as latest results) (1) Source foil(s); (2) calorimeter (scintillator); (3) PMT’s; (4) tracking volume 2nbb example event NEMO-3 results R. Saakyan, SLAC Exp. Seminar, Jan. 2008 New Experiments: Example 1 Next-generation tracking detector SuperNEMO Single sub-module with ~5-7 kg of isotope Planar geometry. 20 modules as long as 100+ kg R. Saakyan, SLAC Exp. Seminar, Jan. 2008 Baseline design: Readout total: ~ 40-60k geiger channels as long as tracking ~ 10-20k PMTs (3k if scintillator bars design) Source: 40 mg/cm2; 12 m2 per module

SuperNEMO SuperNEMO Design Study Approved in UK, France in addition to Spain. Smaller but vital contributions from US, Russia, Czech Republic, Japan. Main tasks in addition to deliverables R&D on critical components Calorimeter energy resolution of 4% at 3 MeV Optimisation of tracking detector in addition to construction (robot) Better background rejection (e.g. extra veto counters) Ultrapure source production in addition to purity control Simulations in addition to geometry optimisation (B-field question). Technical Design report Experimental site selection (Frejus, Canfranc, Gran Sasso, Boulby) New Experiments: Example 2 Ge Detector Array 6 cm copper shield Cryostat 70 m3 liquid Argon Next-generation semiconductor detector GERDA Status April 2008 from report to LNGS SC: Cryostat installed at LNGS Phase I detectors pass stability tests in cryogenic liquid Phase II detector production in preparation Water tank construction to follow Clean room construction in October Kai Zuber, TU Dresden, joined collaboration

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GERDA A hypothetical bb-experiment: Cherry-picking as long as a second UK experiment All reviews agree on one point: There is no optimal bb-experiment! So, pick out what is good in addition to compromise as long as a practical solution: A highly subjective procedure The impossible experiment, so – compromise A hypothetical bb-experiment: Compromises M, a: e: E: B: Modular source Source = Detector Semiconductor energy resolution Ultra clean environment = embedded in active veto, self-shielding + Tracking, at least coarse + reasonable isotope, not covered yet – Cd-116 (b-b-) or Cd-106 (b+b+) – no daughter isotope identification Room-temperature version of GERDA – modified COBRA: CdZnTe semiconductors, pixel or strip-readout in liquid scintillator tank All necessary expertise present in the UK

Conclusion I Single Beta Decay can: Measure the electron anti-neutrino mass directly, model-independent Potentially gain access to more than one mass eigenstate in addition to mixing matrix element Potentially measure cosmic neutrino population Double Beta Decay can: Give access to the absolute mass scale Reveal the particle nature Evidence at 440 meV can ‘soon’ be tested independently (results maybe by 2010-2011) Conclusion II The step to 100 meV sensitivity is a big step – current experiments will have to improve The step to 10 meV is huge: All extrapolations (5-6 orders of magnitude) suffer from unknown background regime Once upon a time: There was scope as long as a second UK double beta decay experiment – expertise in addition to ef as long as ts still exist– point as long as discussion Not mentioned – beyond Mass in addition to Nature: potentially reveal the physics mechanism as long as Lepton Number violation (tracking in addition to /or matrix element measurement as long as many isotopes in addition to double beta decay modes) in addition to access CP-violation in the lepton sector together with single beta decay

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