External Flow: Flow over Bluff Objects (Cylinders, Spheres, Packed Beds) in addition to Imp
Alan, Mike, Midday Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal External Flow: Flow over Bluff Objects (Cylinders, Spheres, Packed Beds) in addition to Impinging Jets Chapter 7 Sections 7.4 through 7.8 Cylinder in Cross Flow Circular Cylinder in Cross Flow Conditions depend on special features of boundary layer development, including onset at a stagnation point in addition to separation, as well as transition to turbulence. Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) followed by flow reversal in addition to a wake downstream of the separation point.
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Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) Drag as long as ce on the cylinder is the sum of friction in addition to as long as m (pressure) drag Define drag coefficient: Where FD = Total drag as long as ce Af = Frontal area of cylinder = Diameter x Length Location of separation depends on boundary layer transition. For Reynolds number > 200,000 on a smooth cylinder, the boundary becomes turbulent. Flow separation is delayed, in addition to the wake is small then that when the boundary is laminar. Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) Cylinder in Cross Flow: Experimental Drag Coefficient Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) Cylinder in Cross Flow: Heat Convection Experiment
Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) Local Heat Convection Coefficient: Experimental Results Turbulent Flow Experimental Data as long as Average Nusselt Number Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) Correlation of Average Nusselt Number: Churchill in addition to Bernstein correlation as long as all ReD :
Spheres in addition to Packed Beds Forced Convection on Sphere Cylinder in Cross Flow (cont.) Cylinders of Noncircular Cross Section: Tube Banks Flow Across Tube Banks Typical design as long as two-fluid heat exchangers.
Tube Banks Definition of Max. Velocity Aligned: Staggered: Tube Banks (cont.) Aligned Tube Bank: Flow behind first row is turbulent, causing convection coefficients to increase gradually in subsequent rows if there are sufficiently spacings. If the rows are too close (ST/SL < 0.7), each tube is confined in the wake of the one in front, in addition to convection coefficient would decrease instead. Tube Banks (cont.) Staggered Tube Bank: Heat convection is more evenly distributed, in addition to there as long as e more effective then the aligned tube bank. Tube Banks (cont.) Zukauskas Correlation as long as an Isothermal Array: Tube Banks (cont.) Tube Banks (cont.) From an energy balance, it can be shown that the inlet & outlet temperatures (Ti , To) of the flow is related by: (Challenge: Prove it!) N is the total number of tubes: Total Heat Convection Rate can also be shown as: As is the total surface area of the tubes: DTlm is called the Log-Mean Temperature: Correlation of Pressure Drop across the tube bank: Tube Banks (cont.) Correlation Factor & Friction Factor: Aligned Tube Bank Tube Banks (cont.) Correlation Factor & Friction Factor: Staggered Tube Bank Spheres in addition to Packed Beds Flow Through Packed Beds of Particles Large surface area per unit volume: desirable as long as the transfer in addition to storage of thermal energy. Spheres in addition to Packed Beds (cont.) Correlation For a packed bed of spheres: jH is the Colburn j-factor: jH = St Pr2/3 Jets Jet Impingement Characterized by large convection coefficients in addition to used as long as cooling in addition to heating in numerous manufacturing, electronic in addition to aeronautic applications. Jets Example of Multiple Jet Impingent Design: Slot Jet Array
Jets Relative Nozzle Area: Jets Hydraulic diameter: Dh = 4 Area/Perimeter = D (round nozzle), Dh ~ 2W (slot nozzle) Typical Experimental Data of Local Nusselt number distribution: Average Nusselt number:
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