Fascism, Communism in addition to World War Two The Rise of Fascism/Nazism Italy: Italian Fascist Imagery Germany:

Fascism, Communism in addition to World War Two The Rise of Fascism/Nazism Italy: Italian Fascist Imagery Germany: www.phwiki.com

Fascism, Communism in addition to World War Two The Rise of Fascism/Nazism Italy: Italian Fascist Imagery Germany:

Haffner, Lisa, Host – Your Life A to Z has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Fascism, Communism in addition to World War Two The Rise of Fascism/Nazism Italy: 1922: Mussolini comes to power in Italy Sources of discontent include: depression, widespread unemployment Fascism: state management of the economy, curtailment of democratic rights, severe constriction of unions (strikes as long as bidden), censorship of the press: “national solidarity” under a “strong leader”. 1935: invasion of Ethiopia Italian Fascist Imagery

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Germany: Sources of discontent in the wake of World War One: Versailles Peace Treaty (1919); War Guilt clauses: territorial concessions, reparations, disarmament, loss of colonies; severe depression in addition to widespread unemployment, especially 1919-1925; French occupation of the Ruhr Valley, 1923-24 1919 National Socialist German Workers’ Party as long as med, anti-Communist/anti-Semitic. Theory: Jews responsible as long as Communism (as well as depression, unemployment, capitalism, etc.) 1923: Hitler announces a revolution against the Weimar Republic, stages an attack on the Bavarian (State) government, in addition to is arrested in addition to imprisoned. Germany II: 1932 Reichstag elections: number of Communists elected rises, number of Nazis, declines 1933: Hitler appointed chancellor (prime minister) of German Republic Hitler calls as long as new elections; despite intimidation at the polls wins 44%. The Reichstag fire, set by Nazis, is blamed on Communists. Hitler proclaims the Third Reich in addition to assumes dictatorial powers 1935: Nuremberg laws, depriving Jews of German citizenship in addition to imposing extensive restrictions. Reichstag fire

Germany III: Germany repudiates clauses of Versailles Treaty requiring disarmament. German army rebuilt. 1936: Germany re-occupies Rhinel in addition to Italy in addition to Germany establish Rome-Berlin Axis, which Japan joins: Anti-Comintern Pact Axis Powers Mussolini in addition to Hitler Japanese in addition to German Ambassadors Sign Pact Spain: 1936: Popular Front government elected (coalition of republicans, Socialists, syndicalists, anarchists, Communists) General Francisco Franco stages coup, leading to Spanish Civil War Britain, France in addition to US as long as bid shipment of war materials to Spain Germany in addition to Italy send planes, arms, troops; the Soviet Union sends arms, Communist parties in Europe in addition to US send volunteers (International Brigades)

Francisco Franco German Expansion, 1937-1938: 1937: Nazi agitation in Danzig, as long as merly Polish city (Gdansk), leads to its incorporation into Germany; Japan invades China 1938: March: Germany annexes Austria September: Germany dem in addition to s part of Czechoslovakia with majority German population; British in addition to French prime ministers, William Chamberlain in addition to Edouard Daladier, meet in Munich, accede to German dem in addition to s in addition to pressure Czechoslovakia to yield to Hitler. The USSR is excluded in addition to Soviet protests are ignored. November: Kristallnacht. Jewish shops in addition to synagogues attacked, 91 Jews killed, 25,000-30,000 arrested. Many Communists in addition to Socialists already in concentration camps. Kristallnacht/ Night of Broken Glass The burning of the synagogue Broken windows at Jewish businesses

German Expansion, 1939: 1939: March: Germany occupies Bohemia-Moravia, Czech-majority part of Czechoslovakia, in addition to dem in addition to s Polish Corridor, northernmost part of Pol in addition to August 23: Molotov-Ribbentrop (Nazi-Soviet) Pact, agreeing to divide Pol in addition to September 1: Germany attacks Pol in addition to . Western Pol in addition to occupied by Germany, eastern Pol in addition to , by the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union later occupies Estonia, Latvia in addition to Lithuania as well. In the German occupied areas the Jews are as long as ced into ghettos. September 3: Britain in addition to France declare war Molotov Ribbentrop Pact Signing the Molotov Ribbentrop Pact

German Expansion, 1941: June 22, 1941: Germany attacks the Soviet Union in addition to occupies its western territories, Ukraine in addition to Byelorussia. Some 20 million Soviets are killed, including virtually the entire Jewish population of the Soviet Union, as well as that of the rest of Europe. The Holocaust begins with the German occupation of the Soviet Union; the Nazi policy of exterminating Jews is then extended westward, to Central in addition to Western Europe. Others killed by the Germans, throughout Europe, include Socialists, Communists, dissidents of all kinds, Roma, homosexuals, the disabled. Operation Barbarossa Germany in 1943

Overall I: In the early 30s fascism looks attractive to many in the West: Mussolini in addition to Hitler are bringing order to societies wracked by class conflicts, raising levels of employment, in addition to creating stable conditions as long as business. Many compare FDR’s early measures to fascism – in addition to as long as some this is not a criticism. Fascism is admired because, in addition to imposing order, it undercuts socialist in addition to Communist movements. Fascist-oriented currents emerge in the US in the depression years: Father Coughlin, the Michigan “radio priest,” aligns himself with European fascism in addition to attacks FDR; Germany tries to mobilize German-Americans as long as a fascist revolution in the US. Anti-Semitism rises. But there is no basis, in the US, as long as mobilizing a popular fascist movement. Overall II: After the 1935 Supreme Court decision invalidating the NIRA, the US moves away from solutions resembling fascism (based on an alliance between government in addition to the corporations) in addition to towards solutions resembling social democracy (based on an alliance between government in addition to labor). But in both the US in addition to Germany, depression is ultimately overcome by preparation as long as war, in addition to war itself. From 1935 on it becomes increasingly clear that fascism involves territorial expansion in addition to that Nazism, the dominant version of fascism, involves extreme as long as ms of racism. Fascist movements grow throughout Europe. In the US enthusiasm as long as fascism wanes, but isolationism is widespread; Communists are virtually alone in organizing against the spread of fascism. Overall III: Europe is increasingly divided between those aligned with Germany in addition to those aligned with the Soviet Union. The Spanish Civil War is a prelude to World War Two, in addition to a warning that fascism could win.

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