Female Reproductive System Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Female Reproductive Organs The Uterus

Female Reproductive System Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Female Reproductive Organs The Uterus www.phwiki.com

Female Reproductive System Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Female Reproductive Organs The Uterus

Davies, Chris, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Female Reproductive System The Highlights Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Control the reproductive cycle Coordinate the ovarian in addition to uterine cycles Hormones of the Female Reproductive Cycle Key hormones include: FSH Stimulates follicular development LH Maintains structure in addition to secretory function of corpus luteum Estrogens Have multiple functions Progesterones Stimulate endometrial growth in addition to secretion

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Female Reproductive Organs Ovary: female gonad Uterine Tubes (fallopian tube, oviduct) – three parts: infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus Figure 28.13 The Female Reproductive System in Midsagital View Figure 28.14a, b The Ovaries in addition to Their Relationships to the Uterine Tube in addition to Uterus

The Uterus Muscular organ Mechanical protection Nutritional support Waste removal as long as the developing embryo in addition to fetus Supported by the broad ligament in addition to 3 pairs of suspensory ligaments Uterine Wall Consists of 3 Layers: Myometrium – outer muscular layer Endometrium – a thin, inner, gl in addition to ular mucosa Perimetrium – an incomplete serosa continuous with the peritoneum The site of implantation of developing embryo And 3 parts: fundus, body, in addition to cervix Female Accessory Sex Organs: Uterus Uterine endometrium has two layers: – basal layer – functional layer: built up in addition to shed each cycle

Figure 28.18c The Uterus Figure 28.19b The Uterine Wall Figure 28.20 The Uterine Cycle To be discussed below

Functions of the Ovary Production of a mature oocyte, capable of fertilization in addition to embryonic development. Production of ovarian steroids (estradiol, progesterone). Production of gonadal peptides (inhibin, activin). Structural Organization of the Ovary The main functional unit of the ovary is the follicle. Follicles are composed of the oocyte, granulosa cells, in addition to theca cells. Stages of Follicular Growth Follicles are present in a number of different stages of growth: – primordial follicles (resting) – primary, secondary, in addition to antral follicles – preovulatory (Graafian) follicles

The Corpus Luteum After the preovulatory follicle ovulates (releases its egg), it as long as ms the corpus luteum. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The Ovarian Cycle OVARY 3 to 5 million OOGONIA differentiate into PRIMARY OOCYTES during early development OOCYTES becomes surrounded by squamous (follicular) cells to become PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES most PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES undergo atresia leaving 400,000 at birth oocytes at birth arrested at Meiosis I (prophase) FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OVARY THREE STAGES OF OVARIAN FOLLICLES CAN BE IDENTIFIED FOLLOWING PUBERTY: (each follicle contains one oocyte) (1) PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES – very prevalent; located in the periphery of the cortex – a single layer of squamous follicular cells surround the oocyte (2) GROWING FOLLICLES – three recognizable stages: (a) early primary follicle (b) late primary follicle (c) secondary (antral) follicle (3) MATURE (GRAAFIAN) FOLLICLES – follicle reaches maximum size

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM OVARIAN FOLLICLES (1) PRIMORDIAL FOLLICLES (2) GROWING FOLLICLES (a) early primary follicle – follicular cells still unilaminar but now are cuboidal in appearance – oocyte begins to enlarge (b) late primary follicle – multilaminar follicular layer; cells now termed granulosa cells – zona pellucida appears; gel-like substance rich in GAGs – surrounding stromal cells differentiate into theca interna in addition to theca externa (b) secondary (antral) follicle – cavities appear between granulosa cells as long as ming an antrum – follicle continues to grow – as long as mation of cumulus oophorus in addition to corona radiata (3) MATURE (GRAAFIAN) FOLLICLES FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM HORMONAL REGULATION OF OOGENSIS AND OVULATION HYPOTHALAMUS release of GnRF which stimulates release of LH in addition to FSH from the adenohypophysis (ANTERIOR PITUITARY) Neuroendocrine Regulation of Ovarian Functions E2, P inhibin, activin Ovulation Follicle Development Luteinization

Effects of GnRH on Gonadotropins GnRH is released in a pulsatile manner, stimulating the synthesis in addition to release of LH in addition to FSH. GnRH acts through its receptor on the pituitary gonadotroph cells, stimulating production of phospholipase C. Recall that IP3 pathway causes gonadotropin release, while the DAG/PKC pathway causes gonadotropin synthesis. Actions of FSH on Granulosa Cells Steroidogenic enzymes LH Receptor Inhibin Subunits Plasminogen activator Gene Expression estradiol Ovarian Estradiol Production

Davies, Chris SlashGear Managing Editor www.phwiki.com

Regulation of Progesterone Production Progesterone is produced from theca cells, mature granulosa cells, in addition to from the corpus luteum. In this case, gonadotropins induce expression of – steroidogenic acute regulatory protein – P450 side chain cleavage Estradiol also has important actions in a number of other tissues: – causes proliferation of uterine endometrium – increases contractility of uterine myometrium – stimulates development of mammary gl in addition to s – stimulates follicle growth (granulosa cell proliferation) – effects on bone metabolism, hepatic lipoprotein production, genitourinary tract, mood, in addition to cognition Effects are mediated through the intracellular estrogen receptors (alpha in addition to beta), in addition to possible membrane effects. Actions of Estradiol Actions of Progesterone Progesterone exerts positive in addition to negative feedback effects on gonadotropin synthesis in addition to release. Progesterone also acts on many tissues: – stimulates secretory activity of the uterine endometrium – inhibits contractility of the uterine myometrium – stimulates mammary growth The actions of progesterone are mediated through an intracellular P receptor, which acts as a transcription factor.

FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The Menstrual Cycle HORMONAL REGULATION OF OOGENSIS AND OVULATION FOLLICULAR PHASE LUTEAL PHASE OVULATION FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The Menstrual Cycle HORMONAL REGULATION OF OOGENSIS AND OVULATION OVULATION: sharp surge in LH with simulataneous increase in FSH Meiosis I resumes; oocyte in addition to surrounding cumulus break away in addition to are extruded oocyte passes into oviduct ECTOPIC IMPLANTATIONS

MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM HORMONAL REGULATION OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTION HYPOTHALAMUS REGULATES ACTIVITY OF ANTERIOR PITUITARY (ADENOHYPOPHYSIS) ADENOHYPOPHYSIS SYNTHESIZES HORMONES (LH in addition to FSH) THAT MODULATE ACTIVITY OF SERTOLI AND LEYDIG CELLS Luteinizing Hormone (LH): stimulates testosterone production by Leydig cells Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH): stimulates production of sperm in conjunction with testosterone by regulating activity of Sertoli cells SERTOLI CELLS STIMULATED BY FSH AND TESTOSTERONE RELEASE ANDROGEN BINDING PROTEIN WHICH BINDS TESTOSTERONE; THEREBY INCREASING TESTOSTERONE CONCENTRATION WITHIN THE SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES AND STIMULATING SPERMATOGENESIS

Davies, Chris Managing Editor

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