Fluidised powder as a new target technology: COMMISSIONING OF A NEW RIG Work by

Fluidised powder as a new target technology: COMMISSIONING OF A NEW RIG Work by www.phwiki.com

Fluidised powder as a new target technology: COMMISSIONING OF A NEW RIG Work by

Smith, Peter, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Fluidised powder as a new target technology: COMMISSIONING OF A NEW RIG Work by Chris Densham, Peter Loveridge & Ottone Caretta (RAL), Tom Davies (Exeter University) in addition to Richard Woods (Gericke LTD) Presented by Ottone Caretta EUROnu-IDS kick-off meeting 2008 CERN December 2008 Is there a ‘missing link’ target technology has some of the advantages of both solids in addition to liquids Monolithic SOLIDS LIQUIDS Segmented Moving Open jets Contained liquids Fluidised powder Increasing power Powder jet targets: some potential advantages Solid Shock waves constrained within material – no splashing, jets or cavitation as as long as liquids Material is already broken Reduced chemistry problems compared with the liquid Fragmented a near hydrostatic stress field develops in the particles so high pulsed energies can be absorbed be as long as e material damage Better as long as eddy currents Favourable (activated) material disposal through verification Moving/flowing Replenishable Favourable heat transfer Decoupled cooling Metamorphic (can be shaped to convenience) Engineering considerations: Could offer favourable conditions as long as beam windows It is a mature technology with ready solutions as long as most issues Few moving parts away from the beam!

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Electrical charge (Lorentz as long as ce) Frictional electrostatic charge Beam charge Eddy currents lower the conductivity of the material break the conductor into smaller parts Elastic stress waves in addition to thermal expansion Erosion + wear Can be tamed with careful design Disposal in addition to radiological hazard Some questions/issues: A tungsten jet as a target as long as NuFact Arising questions: Is it applicable to a geometry similar to that sketched as long as the mercury jet is W flowable Is it fluidisable (its much heavier than any material studied in the literature) Is it possible to convey it in the dense phase in the lean phase What solid fraction is it possible to achieve (a typical loading fraction of 90% w/w solid to air ratio is not good enough!) How does a dense, dense powder jet behave like AIR/PRESSURE IN POWDER IN JET GENERATION AIR EXTRACTION POWDER OUT DENSE MATERIAL FLOW ~1m AUXILIARY AIR INPUT (NOT NEEDED) Tungsten powder < 250 µm particle size Discharge pipe length = 1 m Pipe diameter = 2 cm 3.9 bar (net) pneumatic driving pressure The rig 3 days test campaign 2cm ~30cm Thank you to EIP at RAL as long as providing the video equipment used as long as these experiments High speed videos: some of the tests 2cm Thank you to EIP at RAL as long as providing the video equipment used as long as these experiments propelled by Helium 1.5 bar High speed videos: some of the tests 2cm Thank you to EIP at RAL as long as providing the video equipment used as long as these experiments propelled by Helium 2.5 bar High speed videos: some of the tests 2cm Thank you to EIP at RAL as long as providing the video equipment used as long as these experiments propelled by Helium 3.5 bar High speed videos: some of the tests 2cm Thank you to EIP at RAL as long as providing the video equipment used as long as these experiments propelled by air ~3 bar Tungsten has extremely good flowability It is fluidisable in the dense in addition to lean phase The dense phase was successfully propelled both with air in addition to He W can produce a coherent high density jet (so far ~= 28.75 % v/v ; max ~=50% v/v) The jet looks similar to a liquid jet in addition to is strongly dependent on the surrounding environment We encountered different jet flow regimes Tests results: scope as long as a rig Powder jet test plant layout Compressed air supply Vacuum/air powder Powder jet test plant layout: the powder cycle pressure jet Air lift in addition to recirculation The rig The rig The rig Test area Powder jet prototype test plant AIR LIFT POWDER JET NOZZLE RECEIVER POWDER COOLER GAS COOLER EXHAUSTER COMPRESSOR GAS POWDER FLUIDISED PRODUCT Commissioning of the rig Commissioning of the rig DAQ blower Commissioning of the rig Commissioning of the rig Protons+ Tungsten powder+ Chocolate= What flavour neutrinos! Commissioning of the rig Commissioning of the rig To go boldly where no one has ever been! Smith, Peter A Look At the Shoals - WZZA-AM Host www.phwiki.com

Commissioning of the rig Future work (with the rig) Optimisation of the jet flow Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to determine the density Identification of the parameters affecting the jet in addition to the overall per as long as mance of the system Erosion & wear (e.g. life of st in addition to ard SS components in addition to ceramics parts) Test different powders (e.g. TiO2 in addition to C) Test different powder based target geometries Heat transfer Q & A

Not a totally new idea: packed bed have been proposed in addition to used be as long as e e.g. Sievers proposes a packed bed as a NuFact target: Tantalum grains (2mm) in flowing helium Others who worked with powders: Nick Simos in addition to Kirk McDonald Not a totally new idea: packed bed have been proposed in addition to used be as long as e e.g. Ammerman proposes a packed bed of tungsten particles in flowing helium as a feature as long as the ATW Powder technology (such as fluidised beds, jets in addition to pneumatic bulk transport) Is st in addition to ard technology in addition to is used daily in many different fields: Transport of corn flakes, plastics, ores, to jet cutting, to s in addition to blasting, to fluidised bed furnaces

Erosion Is a st in addition to ard issue encountered in certain flow regimes There are solutions available in addition to most problems can be avoided by careful engineering design of the plant Ceramic linings Turbulent energy dissipation Specially designed gravity fed heat exchangers Erosion: some existing solutions Disposal in addition to radiological hazard High-level radioactive waste from the nuclear industry is currently turned into powder be as long as e vitrification (using boro-silicates)!

Smith, Peter Host

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