Food Enzymes: Friend or Foe A Great Teaching Topic Enzymes in the Food Industry – – Friend or Foe What are enzymes Enzymes catalyze reactions such as these: What controls the action of enzymes

Food Enzymes: Friend or Foe A Great Teaching Topic Enzymes in the Food Industry - - Friend or Foe What are enzymes Enzymes catalyze reactions such as these: What controls the action of enzymes www.phwiki.com

Food Enzymes: Friend or Foe A Great Teaching Topic Enzymes in the Food Industry – – Friend or Foe What are enzymes Enzymes catalyze reactions such as these: What controls the action of enzymes

Corn, Elaine, Contributing Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Food Enzymes: Friend or Foe A Great Teaching Topic Dr. S. Suzanne Nielsen, Purdue University, Dept. Food Science, nielsens@purdue.edu Enzymes in the Food Industry – – Friend or Foe What are enzymes What controls the action of enzymes Why are enzymes important in the food industry Examples of enzymes used in the food industry. What are enzymes Enzymes are highly specialized proteins that catalyze specific biochemical reactions Proteins are chains of individual amino acids

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Enzymes catalyze reactions such as these: Starch Glucose —– Sucrose Glucose + Fructose Proteins Amino Acids What controls the action of enzymes Temperature Water Content pH Chemicals Alteration of Substrates Alteration of Products Why are enzymes important in the food industry Added or used to cause particular reaction Advantages Natural, Nontoxic Catalyze specific reactions Active under mild conditions Active at low concentrations Can control rate of reaction Can be inactivated

Why are enzymes important in the food industry Naturally present – may want to inactivate them Naturally present – may want them to act Used as indicators of proper processing Used to measure another compound in the food Experiments with Food Enzymes Enzymatic Browning of Fruits in addition to Vegetables Coagulation of Milk by Rennet Addition Enzymatic Browning of Fruits in addition to Vegetables Apple (or potato, banana, etc.) slice is put in each of the following solutions. The browning is observed at 5, 10 , in addition to 20 minutes. Control (no solution; open to air) Water Only 0.1% acetic acid 0.1% citric acid 0.1% ascorbic acid

Samples at 5 minutes Control Samples at 10 minutes Control Samples at 20 minutes Control

Control Water 0.1% Acetic Acid

0.1% Citric Acid 0.1% Ascorbic Acid Why Ascorbic acid – Acts as antioxidant; Oxygen preferentially oxidized the ascorbate in addition to not the phenolic compounds Citric acid – Acts as a chelating agent; Complexes copper ions that are necessary as long as enzyme activity Acetic acid – a strong organic acid; Reduces the pH below 3.0 in addition to irreversibly inactivates the enzyme H2O – Oxygen is necessary as long as the browning reaction; Immersion in H2O restricts the available oxygen

Experiments with Food Enzymes Enzymatic Browning of Fruits in addition to Vegetables Coagulation of Milk by Rennet Addition Coagulation of Milk by Rennet Addition Pipette 10 ml of milk into each of 3 test tubes. To two of the tubes, add ~1.5 ml of a 1% rennet solution. Mix. (The 3rd tube will serve as a control. It contains no rennet). Place one of the two tubes with rennet into water at ~37C Observe the coagulation. Coagulation of Sample Control

Coagulation of Sample 1% Rennet Solution, No Heat 5 minutes 10 minutes 20 minutes Coagulation of Sample 1% Rennet Solution, 37C 5 minutes 10 minutes 20 minutes Why Rennet An enzyme obtained from fourth stomach of ruminant animals, in addition to from some microorganisms Cleaves particular bond in K-casein of milk to initiate milk coagulation Coagulates milk protein in cheese making Aids in development of flavor in addition to texture in ripened cheese. Mild heat speeds up the enzyme reaction.

Corn, Elaine KQNC-FM Contributing Reporter www.phwiki.com

Other Examples of Enzymes in Foods Milk Lactase Alkaline phosphatase Lipases Plasmin Fresh vs. canned pineapple Bromelain breaks down gelatin in “Jello” Meat tenderizer – uses bromelain, ficin, or papain Blanching of vegetables – catalase in addition to peroxidase Cloudy vs. clear apple juice M in addition to arin oranges Onions – enzyme alliinase acts on sulfur cmpds. Enzymes in the Food Industry – – Friend or Foe What are enzymes What controls the action of enzymes Why are enzymes important in the food industry Examples of enzymes used in the food industry. Food Enzymes: Friend or Foe A Great Teaching Topic Dr. S. Suzanne Nielsen, Purdue University, Dept. Food Science, nielsens@purdue.edu

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Corn, Elaine Contributing Reporter

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