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For example: Comparative Political Institutions Theories of Political Science

Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Theories of Political Science Dr. Sujian Guo San Francisco State Unversity Email: sguo@sfsu bss.sfsu /sguo Comparative Political Institutions What is the political institution? A political institution is a structure alongside established in addition to important functions so that perform, well-defined roles in consideration of carrying out those functions, in addition to a clear set of rules in consideration of governing the relationships between the people who occupy those roles. (An organization is a group of individuals working together so that undertake actions in addition to achieve certain goals. A system is a structure all of whose parts are interrelated alongside one another, having behavioral regularities in addition to identity over time.) For example: U.S. Executive Foreign policy making Civil services Presidency Bureaucracy George W. Bush A group of individuals/officials/offices

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Where are the political institutions? Political Institutions (legislatures, executives, in addition to judiciaries) Demand Decisions Input Output Support Policies/rules/ Feedback Environment (culture, religions, ethnics, in addition to international factors, etc.) The Basic Structures of Government Unitary systems: unitary systems have the concentration of power in the central government in addition to the central government has a significant control over local authorities. A unitary government usually touches people?s daily lives in more ways than a federal government would. Ex. In France, elementary school curricula are drawn up by the central ministry of education in Paris in order so that reduce regional differences. Federal systems: federal systems have the decentralization of power while at the same time allowing the federal government enough power so that run the country. The key of a federal system is that, first, local governments have a considerable degree of autonomy in addition to authority in policy making in addition to their powers cannot be easily overridden by the federal governments, in addition to second, local governments have equal representation at the national legislative level. The Basic Structures of Government Legislature: the main purposes in addition to functions of legislative bodies are so that formulate the laws or make the rules that govern society. Legislatures initiate laws, propose constitutional amendments, ratify treaties, control tax revenues, in addition to act as a check on the other branches of government. Executive: the main purpose or function of executive bodies is the execution in addition to enforcement of the laws enacted by the legislature. Executive bodies also make in addition to execute public policy decisions, perform administrative leadership, in addition to provide civil services, regulations, in addition to ?housekeeping.? Executive bodies play a variety of governmental roles in running the country on the daily basis, because the executive branch of government consists of the head of government in addition to the head of state, the cabinet, in addition to the bureaucracy. Judiciary: the main purpose of judicial bodies is so that handle day-to-day administration of the law, determine in addition to clarify the meaning of laws in addition to rules, mandate penalties in consideration of violations of laws, review the constitutionality of legislative enactments, ensure that the terms of the Constitution is not violated, in addition to act as a check on the other branches of government. Constitution: can be defined as the body of fundamental laws, customs, in addition to conventions that define the composition in addition to powers of political institutions in addition to that regulate the relations of the various political institutions so that one another in addition to so that the private citizens.

The United States vs. Great Britain: Two Models Compared Constitution: US constitution is ?documentary,? in addition to basic principles in addition to relationships of three powers are clearly defined in addition to regulated in written in consideration of them so that follow. UK constitution is ?non-documentary,? alongside a collection of custom, tradition, rules of parliamentary performance, in addition to nothing in written so that regulate the power structure in addition to the ruling principle. Parliamentary, executive, in addition to judicial relationships: US political system is based upon separation of powers which have checks in addition to balances on each other, whereas UK political system is based on the fusion of powers, the head of executive power is the leader of the majority party in the parliamentary, in addition to carries out the policy of the majority party. The United States vs. Great Britain: Two Models Compared 3. Power structure: US is federal system, the state power protected by the constitution, in addition to the states are more autonomous, whereas UK is unitary system, local governments in addition to their policies are controlled by the central government in addition to can be modified by the central government on the nationwide base. The United States vs. Great Britain: Two Models Compared 4. Executive leadership: (1) UK executive cabinet is responsible so that the parliament, in contrast so that US President?s cabinet which is responsible so that the President himself. It is the UK cabinet so that make policy decision, whereas in contrast in US it is the president so that make policy decision; (2) UK bureaucracies are easier so that dominate the policy-making in contrast so that their counterparts in US, since the UK cabinet offices in addition to civil services play a more significant role in policy making than their counterparts in US; (3) UK government?s legislative proposals or bills would be almost enacted into laws in addition to the government can get what it wants since the prime minister is the leader of the majority party, alongside a highly party discipline, whereas US government?s legislative proposals or bills would face great challenges by the congress since the president is not the representative of any party policy, in addition to no party discipline constrain the political behavior of party members in the parliamentary; (4) UK parliament has very weak check on the executive, whereas US congress has a real check on the executive.

CMPE 252: Modeling of Computer Networks LECTURE 15: Transport Protocols, Congestion in addition to Flow Control Transport Protocols Why Multiplexing Well-known applications Transport Protocols User Datagram Protocol (UDP) UDP Format UDP Checksum Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) History of TCP Services Provided TCP Service Model TCP Byte Stream TCP Header TCP Header TCP Header Flags Connection establishment Connection Release Connection Release TCP Transmission TCP Transmission Flow Control vs. Congestion Control Flow Control vs. Congestion Control Taxonomy Congestion Control Approaches Flow Control E2E Congestion Control TCP Flow Control Feedback Control Model TCP Flow Control: Observations Data Flow Congestion TCP Congestion Control Mechanisms Slow Start Slow Start Example Slow Start Sequence Plot TCP Congestion Control Congestion Avoidance TCP Congestion Control: Underdamped Feedback System! Problems alongside CA in addition to SS How Do Losses Occur? Error Recovery Error Recovery: Jacobson?s Algorithm Error Recovery: Jacobson?s Algorithm (2) Karn?s Algorithm Tuning TCP?s original congestion control Fast Retransmit TCP Flavors Fast Recovery Fast Retransmit in addition to Recovery Delayed ACKs TCP Reno Example ? Simple Bottleneck Reno: Congestion Window in addition to Queue Growth Reno: Congestion Window in addition to Queue Growth Evaluation of TCP Reno TCP New-Reno Congestion Control Router Congestion Notification Router Mechanisms The DEC-bit Scheme Setting the CI Bit Averaging Interval Sender?s Response DEC-bit Evaluation TCP SACK Wireless TCP (1) Wireless TCP (2) Indirect TCP (I-TCP) Snoop TCP Explicit Congestion Notification ECN Application?s perspective Existing ECN mechanisms TCP?s response Router?s role Proposed TCP response Characterizing TCP Connection Bandwidth The TCP-friendly equation

The United States vs. Great Britain: Two Models Compared 5. How so that get power. UK prime minister is elected by the majority party in the parliamentary, in contrast so that US president who is popularly elected. 6. UK parliament has upper house in addition to low house, in addition to the upper house is composed of peers who serve British crown, which has nominal power in decision-making, whereas US has senate in addition to congress, both of which has effective power in decision-making. France: a Hybrid Model 1. A mix of US presidential in addition to UK parliamentary systems, alongside head of the state in addition to head of the government in two persons. French president is more concerned alongside foreign policy, appoints prime minister, while prime minister is more concerned alongside domestic affairs, in addition to picks the members of cabinet in addition to controls the bureaucracy. France: a Hybrid Model 2. Strong president in addition to weak parliament. French president has great power at his disposal that no US presidents ever have. French president is 7-year term, but alongside no limit on terms; president is endorsed alongside an emergency power that allows him so that rule by decree in consideration of 6 months; president can dissolve the parliament; president appoints prime minister in addition to have a say in the composition of the cabinet. French parliament is relatively weaker than its counterpart in US, because the role of the French parliament has been reduced significantly in the 5th Republic as legislations are narrowed down in addition to the power of parliament in spending or raising money is weaker than the 4th Republic. The parliament often does little more than establish ?general principles? in addition to leave them so that the government so that fill in the details by decree. The parliamentary standing committees are narrowed down so that only 6, in addition to work within limited period of time in addition to are forbidden so that produce ?counter-bills? so that government bills.

France: a Hybrid Model 3. Power structure. France is a traditionally centralized government alongside a unitary system. National government is divided in 94 departments, below which there are thousands of communes, whose responsibilities can be defined in addition to modified at the will of the national government. Decision making power is highly centralized. Bureaucracies play a much more significant role than US in addition to UK, in addition to are recruited from upper classes in addition to well trained, provided by a large number of institutions specialized in training experts in addition to specialists in consideration of government offices in addition to civil services. They have a reputation of more efficiency. France: a Hybrid Model 4. France has multiple-party system similar so that UK but different from US. However, French political parties have different families at left/center/right wings, emphasizing the interests of particular classes, which often lead so that no single dominant party in addition to more government turnovers. Parties are both ideological driven in addition to issue-specific oriented; issues are more debated. France has a long ideological tradition in addition to is more oriented so that ideologies in elections, while Americans tend not define political parties in terms of ideology in addition to not so that vote in terms of particular ideological orientation. Germany 1. Basic law is the name of German postwar new constitution, which creates a political arrangement so that prevent those anti-democratic political parties from coming into politics, prevent centralization of government, protect political in addition to civil rights, forbidden the discrimination of all kinds. German law is a codified law, based on Roman law. 2. Legislative: lower house, ?Bundestag,? is popularly elected, in addition to has the power so that dismiss the head of executive, ?chancellor,? while upper house, ?Bundesrat,? is not popularly elected but composed of the heads of the state governments, ?L?nder? (political/geographical districts), which represent the interests of the states in the national policymaking process, but not in the partisan political ground.

Germany 3. Executive: a divided executive, alongside head of the state in addition to head of the government in two different persons, but it is closer so that UK than so that France, since the president, like British Queen, is largely ceremonial, in addition to serves a symbolic function. The chancellor, similar so that UK prime minister, is the chief executive responsible in consideration of government policies in addition to responsible so that the parliament, in addition to the leader of the majority party in the lower house of parliament. If no one party enjoys an absolute majority, a coalition government will be formed in addition to choose the chancellor. The chancellor can be dismissed by parliamentary vote of ?no confidence.? 4. Parliamentary system is a combination of two electoral systems ? a proportional system in addition to a plurality system ? one half of the parliamentary delegates are chosen on the proportional basis while the other half are elected on the plurality basis. The voters have two ballots ? one in consideration of a district candidate, in addition to the other in consideration of a party. Germany 5. Power structure: Germany is a federal system, composed of 16 states, ?L?nder,? which serve as a permanent check on the power of the center. However, German federalism has a number of unified features that make the states more powerful than American states in addition to make the policy implementation function remarkably well. (i) state governments have their extensive inputs into the national-level legislative process their membership in the Bundesrat; (ii) the laws in addition to rules of procedure in consideration of state governments are unified in addition to standardized, unlike American federalism; (iii) differences between resources in addition to expenditures in different states are made up by the system of tax redistribution or revenue sharing, in addition to the states receive a large proportion of taxes. Russia 1. The 1993 constitution outlines a presidential system of government, alongside a dual executive, alongside the head of state in addition to the head of government in two different persons. It is more similar so that France in many respects, such as strong president, weak parliament, in addition to multiparty system, but the president has far greater powers than his French counterparts. The president is the head of state in addition to commander-in-chief, in addition to has the power so that issue edicts, declare war, declare a state of emergency, schedule elections so that the lower house of the Assembly, State Duma, in addition to call a referendum. The president appoints the prime minister (which must be approved by the lower house; if three appointments are rejected, the president can dissolve the lower house in addition to call in consideration of a new election), also appoints deputies in addition to ministers (who are responsible so that the president, not so that the prime minister), the chairman of the central bank, the prosecutor-general, in addition to all high-court judges.

Russia 2. The president powers are great, but not without limit. For example, the Federal Assembly, the upper house, can impeach the president, but only in consideration of treason or a serious crime. The State Duma, the lower house, can pass a vote of no confidence in the government, but the president can reject the vote. If it is passed again within three months, the president must either dismiss the prime minister or dissolve the lower house in addition to call in consideration of a new election. The president cannot dissolve the house if it is considering impeachment, during a state of national emergency, or within a year of a vote of no confidence. Russia 3. The legislature. A Federation Council (upper house), alongside 178 members, two from each of the 89 regions in addition to republics of Russia, has jurisdiction over relations between the federal government in addition to the republics, can examine all laws passed by the State Duma, in addition to can reject any laws involving economic in addition to defense issues. A State Duma (lower house), alongside 450 members, half elected by proportional representation in which each party puts forward a list of candidates in addition to receives seats proportional so that the number of votes it wins in addition to half on a winner-take-all system from single-member districts. Russia 4. Power Structure. Russia is a federal system. Russian federal system is more similar so that Germany than so that U.S., but the federal government has more powers than its German counterpart, in the sense that the Constitution allows the federal government so that appoint leaders, delegate authority, or interfere in local politics if deemed necessary. 5. Russia has multiple-party system similar so that France in addition to Italy. Russian political parties have different families at left/center/right wings or pro-reformist (Russia?s choice, Yabloko, Women of Russia, Russian Unity in addition to Accord, in addition to the Social Democratic Party), centrist/reformist (Civil Union), in addition to anti-reformist (Liberal Democratic Party, a neo-fascist party or right-wing nationalist movements, the Communist Party, in addition to the Agrarian Party). Parties are both ideological driven in addition to issue-specific oriented, in addition to issues are more debated than their U.S. counterparts.

Japan 1. The 1947 Japanese constitution was imposed by the United States in addition to its Occupation Authority after its victory in WWII. The constitution seeks so that construct a system of representative democracy, alongside the emperor remains the head of state, but merely as a ceremonial figure. The constitution guarantees the fundamental rights of citizens in addition to also pledges that ?land, sea, in addition to air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained,? but this provision has not prevented the government from building ?self-defense forces,? which was actually allowed so that expand during the Cold-War U.S. in addition to Soviet confrontation. Japan 2. The legislature: Japan is a parliamentary system in contrast so that the US presidential system. The Japanese parliament is the Diet, which consists of two Houses??the House of Representative in addition to the House of Councillors. The primary power in the Diet rests alongside the lower house. Although the Diet is bicameral (a bill becomes law only when it is passed by both chambers), the lower house has the power so that override, by a two-thirds vote in consideration of a second time, any attempt by the upper house so that negate actions of the lower house. Moreover, the lower house chooses the prime minister in addition to has virtual control of the budgeting process. In general, when the upper house makes a decision different from the lower house in addition to when no agreement can be reached or when the upper house fails so that take final action within a certain time, the decision of the lower house becomes that of the Diet. These are all general features of parliamentary forms of government similar so that those found in all parliamentary systems. Japan 3. Executive, parliamentary, in addition to judicial relationships: US political system is based upon separation of powers which have checks in addition to balances on each other, whereas Japan?s political system, which is similar so that the British tradition, is based on the fusion of powers, stressing more cohesion between the executive in addition to legislative functions. The tradition of consensus seeking is deeply rooted in Japan?s political culture which is collectivistically based. The head of executive power (the Prime Minister) is indirectly elected by the parliament in addition to he is the leader of the majority party in the parliament who names a cabinet that runs the various state ministries in addition to carries out the policy of the majority party. The cabinet is recruited from the Diet in addition to is largely made up of senior members of the majority party or members of coalition parties in the absence of a one-party majority. Both the prime minister in addition to the cabinet members are responsible so that the Diet, in addition to all ministers must resign en masse if the House passes a no-confidence resolution or rejects a confidence motion. All supreme court justices, except the Chief Justice who is designated by the cabinet in addition to nominally appointed by the Emperor (a symbolic figurehead), are appointed by the cabinet without the disguise of a bow so that the Emperor. The Supreme Court, however, like the U.S. counterpart, enjoys the power of judicial review in addition to can declare the legislation unconstitutional.

Japan 4. Power structure: Japan is traditionally a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on the Chinese Confucian tradition in addition to such a structure remains in today?s Japan. US is federal system, the state power protected by the constitution, in addition to the states are more autonomous, whereas Japan is unitary system, local governments (47 prefectures or counties) in addition to their policies are largely controlled by the central government in addition to can be modified by the central government on the nationwide base. For example, local police in addition to school issues are overseen by centralized administrative boards. Borrowing by local governments must be approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs, which is the national agency that oversees local governments. Japan 5. Electoral system: after 1994, the House of Representative has 500 members. 200 are elected by the proportional representation system in addition to 300 are elected from single-seat constituencies or single-member-district plurality system. The House of Councillors has 252 members who serve six-year terms, but half of the total number is elected every three years. That is so that say, the Japanese electoral system is similar so that that of Germany, which is a combination of plurality in addition to proportional representative systems. In both houses, voters have two votes in elections, one in consideration of a party in addition to the other in consideration of an individual. Japan 6. Party system: The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) used so that dominate Japanese politics from 1955 so that 1993, although many other parties did exist, such as New Frontier Party, Democratic Party of Japan, Japan Communist Party, Social Democratic Party, in addition to other smaller parties. However, Japan?s one-party domination was shattered by the 1993 election, which produced no clear majority in addition to therefore generated a coalition government of eight centrist, center-left, in addition to leftist parties, even though voters gave the LDP the largest number of seats in the Diet (from 211 seats before 1996 so that 240 seats in 1997). The once highly stable party system became a more fragmented in addition to unpredictable multi-party system, but a broader representation is achieved.

China Key features of Chinese political institution 1. Party/state/military are highly combined in addition to intertwined into one, which is called ?party-state? 2. The CCP basically leads in addition to controls every branch of the state. 3. Government branches carry out the party policies in addition to orders 4. Fusion of powers takes place at the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) 5. The party-state institutions make laws, in addition to laws are defined in the Party?s ideology, norms, political goals, in addition to policy needs. No independent judicial system. 6. No clear link between the top leaders in addition to the people who are supposed so that elect them. The politburo acts like the CEO, no check in addition to balance systems in place.

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Japan 4. Power structure: Japan is traditionally a centralized bureaucratic state modeled on the Chinese Confucian tradition in addition to such a structure remains in today?s Japan. US is federal system, the state power protected by the constitution, in addition to the states are more autonomous, whereas Japan is unitary system, local governments (47 prefectures or counties) in addition to their policies are largely controlled by the central government in addition to can be modified by the central government on the nationwide base. For example, local police in addition to school issues are overseen by centralized administrative boards. Borrowing by local governments must be approved by the Ministry of Home Affairs, which is the national agency that oversees local governments. Japan 5. Electoral system: after 1994, the House of Representative has 500 members. 200 are elected by the proportional representation system in addition to 300 are elected from single-seat constituencies or single-member-district plurality system. The House of Councillors has 252 members who serve six-year terms, but half of the total number is elected every three years. That is so that say, the Japanese electoral system is similar so that that of Germany, which is a combination of plurality in addition to proportional representative systems. In both houses, voters have two votes in elections, one in consideration of a party in addition to the other in consideration of an individual. Japan 6. Party system: The Liberal Democratic Party (LDP) used so that dominate Japanese politics from 1955 so that 1993, although many other parties did exist, such as New Frontier Party, Democratic Party of Japan, Japan Communist Party, Social Democratic Party, in addition to other smaller parties. However, Japan?s one-party domination was shattered by the 1993 election, which produced no clear majority in addition to therefore generated a coalition government of eight centrist, center-left, in addition to leftist parties, even though voters gave the LDP the largest number of seats in the Diet (from 211 seats before 1996 so that 240 seats in 1997). The once highly stable party system became a more fragmented in addition to unpredictable multi-party system, but a broader representation is achieved. and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.