From the TeVatron to the LHC: What could lie beyond the SM The St in addition to ard Model The missing piece: the Higgs Beyond SM: the Unknown Outline

From the TeVatron to the LHC: What could lie beyond the SM The St in addition to ard Model The missing piece: the Higgs Beyond SM: the Unknown Outline www.phwiki.com

From the TeVatron to the LHC: What could lie beyond the SM The St in addition to ard Model The missing piece: the Higgs Beyond SM: the Unknown Outline

Lockhart, Larry, News Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal From the TeVatron to the LHC: What could lie beyond the SM Monica D’Onofrio IFAE-Barcelona HEP Seminar, University of Ox as long as d, 28th October 2008 Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 The St in addition to ard Model Matter is made out of fermions: 3 generations of quarks in addition to leptons Forces are carried by Bosons: Electroweak: ,W,Z Strong: gluons Remarkably successful description of known phenomena: predicted the existence of charm, bottom, top quarks, tau neutrino, W in addition to Z bosons. Very good fit to the experimental data so far but The missing piece: the Higgs What is the origin of masses Within SM, Higgs field gives mass to Particles (EWK symmetry breaking) SM predicts existence of a new massive neutral particle Not found yet! Theory does not predict its mass LEP limit: mH>114 GeV @ 95% CL Indirect limit from EW data: – Preferred value: mH = 84+34-26 GeV – mH < 154 GeV @ 95% CL with aS (MZ) = 0.1185±0.0026, DaS(5)had=0.02758±0.00035 Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 WOULD THE HIGGS DISCOVERY COMPLETE OUR UNDERSTANDING OF NATURE Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis US www.phwiki.com

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Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Beyond SM: the Unknown Many possible new particles in addition to theories SuperSymmetry Extra Dimension New Gauge groups (Z’, W’) New fermions (e, t’, b’ ) Can show up in direct searches or as subtle deviations in precision measurements The St in addition to ard Model is theoretically incomplete Mass hierarchy problem radiative correction in Higgs sector Unification Dark Matter Matter-antimatter asymmetry Outline Tevatron in addition to the CDF in addition to D0 experiments Tevatron sensitivities: achievements underst in addition to ing the SM The SM Higgs Searching as long as physics beyond SM Supersymmetry mSUGRA-inspired searches: Squark/gluino Chargino/neutralinos GMSB-inspired searches Diphoton+X Delayed photon analysis MSSM Higgs Extra-dimension in addition to new gauge bosons: Search as long as high-mass resonances Perspectives as long as the LHC Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 The Tevatron Peak luminosity > 3.2 1032 cm-2 s-1 Integrated luminosity/week ~ 40-60 pb-1 Highest-energy accelerator currently operational p p – CDF D0 Delivered: 5.1 fb-1 Acquired: 4.2-4.3 fb-1 (CDF/ DØ)

Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 CDF in addition to DØ in RunII D0 CDF Took >1 years of collisions to get to stable high efficiency Jan 02 Oct 08 Tevatron Sensitivities Jet cross section measurements, heavy flavor physics, inclusive W/Z Precision measurements (Top properties, observation of rare processes ) New Physics searches, looking as long as ‘the’ unexpected Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Both CDF in addition to D0 have a very rich physics program! Knowledge of the SM: QCD in addition to EWK Test of Next-to-Leading Order perturbative QCD inclusive jet cross section Probing distances ~10-19 m Constrains gluon PDF at high-x Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 MW = 80413±48 MeV GW = 2032±73 MeV world’s most precise single measurements! Z(e+e-)+jets Clean signature, low background Test ground as long as Monte Carlo tools W Mass in addition to width

Knowledge of SM: top physics Top quark discovered at the Tevatron in 1995 Very extensive program on top physics: Precision measurements of top mass Top cross sections, properties Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Mtop = 172.4 ± 0.7 (stat) ± 1.0 (syst) GeV/c2 Knowledge of SM: rare processes Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 The focus is now to uncover the unknown Evidence of Single top production DiBoson cross sections Measurements of W/Zg, WW in addition to WZ cross sections ZZ production Evidence at CDF Observation at D0!! D0:s + t = 4.7 ± 1.3 pb CDF: s + t = 2.0-2.7 pb (± 0.7 pb per analysis) Consistent with NLO calculation Consistent with NLO calculation: 1.4 ± 0.1 pb Needle in the haystack Every measurement we make is an attempt to find New Physics When searching as long as a needle in a haystack, the hay is more important than the needle Many searches are extensions of SM measurements. Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Signature-based searches Signature driven Optimize selection to reduce backgrounds Event count; event kinematics Model-inspired searches Theory driven Model-dependent optimization of event selection Set limits on model parameters

The SM Higgs Boson Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 SM Higgs Production in addition to Decay Direct production ggH Highest Production rate Largest background Associated production ZH/WH Leptonic vector boson decay helps as long as triggering in addition to signal extraction Low Mass (MH<135 GeV/c2) Hbb mode dominates WHlbb, ZHbb , ZHllbb VBF Production, VHqqbb, H(with 2jets), H, WH->WWW, ttH High Mass (135 = Fermion QFermion> = Boson Define R-parity = (-1)3(B-L)+2s R = 1 as long as SM particles R = -1 as long as MSSM partners gaugino/higgsino mixing Minimal SuperSymmetric SM (MSSM): Mirror spectrum of particles Enlarged Higgs sector: two doublets with 5 physical states Naturally solve the hierarchy problem If conserved, provides Dark Matter C in addition to idate (Lightest Supersymmetric Particle)

Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 No SUSY particles found yet: SUSY must be broken More than 100 parameters even in minimal (MSSM) models Symmetry breaking choose a model mSUGRA, GMSB, . Breaking mechanism determines phenomenology in addition to search strategy at colliders: Direct searches or subtle deviations in precision measurements Constrained MSSM models used as benchmark Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Sparticles mass in addition to cross sections Squarks in addition to gluinos are heavy Sizeable Chargino/neutralino cross sections M(+) ~ M(02) ~ 2M(01) M(g) ~ 3M(+) ~ In R parity conservation scenario, the LSP is the neutralino (c01 ) in mSUGRA, new superfields in “hidden” sector Interact gravitationally with MSSM 5 parameter at GUT scale 1. Unified gaugino mass m1/2 2. Unified scalar mass m0 3. Ratio of H1, H2 vevs tan 4. Trilinear coupling A0 5. Higgs mass term sgn() Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 mSUGRA: Low tan b scenario (=5 as long as CDF, = 3 as long as D0) Assume 5-flavors degenerate Inclusive search as long as squark/gluino A0 = 0, m<0 M0 [0,500 GeV/c2] m1/2 [50,200 GeV/c2] Mq > Mg gg final state dominates 4 jets expected Mq ~ Mg qg final state dominates 3 jets expected Mq < Mg qq final state dominates 2 jets expected ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 3 different analyses carried out with different jet multiplicities Final selection based on Missing ET , HT = S (ETjets) in addition to ET jets Final state: energetic jets of hadrons in addition to large unbalanced transverse energy (due to presence of c0) Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Background rejection Data sample Cleanup at least one central jet with h<1.1 minimum missing ET of 70 GeV Reject beam-related backgrounds in addition to cosmics Rejection of SM processes W/Z+jets with Wl or Z, DiBoson in addition to tt production: Signatures very similar to SUSY QCD-multijet: ET due to jet energy mismeasurement. Define signal region based on selections that maximize background rejection Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 QCD multijet rejection Missing ET from mis-reconstructed jets Collinear with one of the leading jets Apply cuts on Df (missingET-jets) Df(MET-jets) cut reversed as long as at least one of the leading jets CDF: remaining QCD-bkg estimatated from Monte Carlo. Control checks in enhanced QCD-sample DØ : QCD-bkg extrapolated in data by exponential fit function Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Top in addition to Boson+jets rejection Genuine Missing ET in the event Suppressed vetoing events with: jet Electromagnetic fraction > 90%, to reject electrons mis-identified as jets isolated tracks collinear to missing ET to reject undetected electrons/muons Modeled using Monte Carlo Normalized to NLO cross section Define control regions reversing lepton vetoes checks of background estimations Underst in addition to ing these processes is fundamental Control region Control region

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Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 DATA vs SM predictions Good agreement between Observed in addition to Expected events Systematic uncertainties dominated by Jet Energy scale CDF DØ Monica D’Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Similar results as long as CDF in addition to DØ Exclusion limits: Mg -Mq in addition to M0-M1/2 plane For Mg=Mq M > 392 GeV/c2 Mg > 280 GeV/c2 in any case ~ ~ ~ Results can be interpreted as a function of mSUGRA parameters LEP limit improved in the region where 700 Good agreement between data in addition to SM prediction set limit Signal region: Missing ET > 20 GeV + topological cuts Njet=0,1 in addition to ETjet < 80 GeV CDF DØ Data Observed : 3 SM Expected: 4.1 0.7 47 Dilepton in addition to trilepton control regions defined to test SM predictions (4 channels) Excluded region in mSUGRA Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Small Dm = m(c20 )-m(l), soft leptons from c20 decay Loss in acceptance, no exclusion ~ excluded region in mSUGRA m0-m½ space as long as tan()=3, A0=0, >0 ~ ~ m0 = 60 GeV/c2 Exclude mc±1 < 145 GeV/c2 Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 Gauge Mediated Symmetry Breaking (taken from N. Ghodbane et al., hep-ph/0201233) Snowmass p8 spectra SUSY breaking at scale L (10 -100 TeV). Mediated by Gauge Fields (“messengers”) Gravitino very light ( MeV) in addition to LSP Neutralino or slepton can be NLSP If NLSP is neutralino In Rp conservation scenario: 2 NLSP 2g + MET (+X) in final state CDF Run I Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 CDF Jet Energy Scale Different correction factors: (frel) Relative Corrections Make response uni as long as m in h (MPI) Multiple Particle Interactions Energy from different ppbar interaction (fabs) Absolute Corrections Calorimeter non-linear in addition to non-compensating (UE) Underlying Event Energy associated with spectator partons PT jet(R) = [ PT jetraw(R) frel (R) – MPI(R)] fabs(R) - UE(R) Absolute correction factor CDF Run II Total systematic uncertainties as long as JES: between 2% in addition to 3% Jets are composite object: complex underlying physics depends on detector properties Monica D'Onofrio, IFAE University of Ox as long as d, 10/28/2008 T. Plehn, PROSPINO Strongly interacting particles High cross sections as long as gluinos in addition to squarks production Golden signature! (pb) LHC mSUGRA cross sections

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