Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis) Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis)

Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis) Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis) www.phwiki.com

Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis) Functional Matrix Hypothesis (Moss’ Hypothesis)

Smith, Kevin, Music Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Craniometry in addition to Functional Craniology Part II: Functional Craniology: Kinematics in addition to Dynamics Michael S. Yuan, DDS, MA, PhD Assistant Professor of Clinical Dentistry Division of Orthodontics School of Dental in addition to Oral Surgery Columbia University December 4, 2003 Lecture outline 1. Introduction: definition, scope, in addition to objectives 2. Kinematics in addition to dynamics 3. Biomechanics: as long as ces, de as long as mation, stresses, strains 4. Form in addition to Function 5. Bone remodeling in addition to growth directions 6. Moss’ Hypothesis: Functional Matrix Hypothesis 7. Clinical applications Functional Craniology Definition: The study of the craniofacial complex in relation to the fields of functional anatomy, comparative anatomy, embryology, in addition to growth in addition to development. Scope: anatomy, embryology, histology, physiology, growth in addition to development of the head in addition to neck regions; theories of craniofacial growth; craniometry in addition to cephalometry; in addition to others Objectives: 1) to relate the function to the morphology of the craniofacial complex. 2) to apply the theories of craniofacial growth in addition to biomechanics to better underst in addition to the morphology, ontogeny in addition to phylogeny of the craniofacial complex 3) to provide the scientific basis as long as the clinical applications in the treatment of craniofacial anomalies.

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Dynamics The interpretation in addition to description of the biological processes of the changes in size, shape, in addition to location of the craniofacial complex. Kinematics The measurement in addition to description of the changes in size, shape, in addition to location of the craniofacial complex. The description of measurement. The description of the changes in size, shape, in addition to location based on observations in addition to measurements. The why, who, how, which in addition to where, in addition to what in measurement. Kinematics 1) The history, scope, definition, in addition to objectives of anthropometry 2) Introduction to craniometry in addition to cephalometry 3) Define anatomical l in addition to marks 4) Define anthropometric, craniometric, cephalometric measurements 5) Measuring devices in addition to technical assessments 6) Data analysis, result descriptions a) qualitative vs quantitative b) absolute vs relative c) statistical analysis What is the true meaning of a measurement How to see beyond the numbers And what are we looking as long as What makes the changes in size, shape, in addition to location of an organism or a structure (the trans as long as mation) What are the modern hypotheses, paradigms, in addition to syntheses in underst in addition to ing these kinematic changes Dynamics 1) Introduction to functional craniometry 2) Basic principles in growth in addition to development, especially in osteology in addition to biomechanics. 3) The functional, biological, in addition to mechanical interpretations of the trans as long as mation of an organism or a structure. 4) The evolutionary significance: the adaptation in addition to the selection 5) Clinical applications

De as long as mation: Change of as long as m due to the loading of as long as ces Stress: the as long as ce per unit area Strain: the dimensional change expressed as a fraction (ratio) of the subject’s original size Terminology used in Biomechanics Force: compression, tension, bending, shear, in addition to torsion Force Compression, Tension, Shear, Bending, Torsion 1) Two basic as long as ces: Compression & Tension 2) A combination of compression in addition to tension: Shear & Bending 3) A combination of the above four as long as ces: Torsion

Torsion

Facial De as long as mation Facial De as long as mation Cephalic Form, Facial Form, in addition to Arch Form Dolichocephalic (long in addition to narrow head) Leptoprosopic (long in addition to narrow face) Dolichuranic (V shape, narrow maxillary arch) Source: Dr. Christel Hummert FM, female,13y 6m

Source: Dr. Christel Hummert FM Female 13y 6m Form (Structure) in addition to Function Function determines as long as m (structure). Function controls as long as m (structure). Function regulates as long as m (structure). Form (structure) is the realization of in as long as mation in addition to the product of the functional attributes. Form (structure) follows Function. Cranial Sutures 1. Edge-to-edge suture No as long as ce loading 2. Beveled suture Shear as long as ce [Squamosal suture] 3. Serrated suture Intermittent tension as long as ce [Sagittal suture] “Form Follows Function” 4. Beveled in addition to serrated suture Intermittent tension in addition to shear as long as ce 5. Butt-ended sutures Intermittent compressive as long as ce

“Form Follows Function” 1. Plane (gliding) joint Sliding motion of all directions 2. Hinge joint Flexion/extension Synovial Joints (I) Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm [ Humeroulnar joint] [ Intermetatarsal joint] Synovial Joints (II) 3. Pivot joint Rotation 4. Ellipsoidal (condyloid) joint flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction, but no rotation “Form Follows Function” Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm [Temporom in addition to ibular joint] [Radioulnar joint] Synovial Joints (III) 5. Saddle joint Similar to ellipsoidal joint, but freer 6. Ball in addition to socket joint flexion/extension, adduction/abduction, circumduction, in addition to rotation “Form Follows Function” Illustrations: http://www.science.ubc.ca/~biomania/tutorial/bonejt/intro.htm [Glenohumeral joint] [First carpometacarpaljoint] [Glenohumeral joint] [First carpometacarpal joint]

Functional Structure of Skull (From a mechanical point of view) 1) Fronto-nasal pillar 2) Zygomatic arch pillar with vertical branch 3) Zygomatic arch pillar with horizontal branch 4) Basal arch in upper jaw 5) Basal arch in lower jaw 6) Occipital pillar 7) Pterygoid-palate pillars In the as long as ce loading areas, pillar-like struts serve as mechanically efficient rein as long as cements to resist in addition to dissipate pressure in addition to traction, especially to the masticatory as long as ce. Functional Structure of Skull (From a mechanical point of view) In the non- or less as long as ce loading areas, adipose tissue in addition to pneumatic cavities fill those mechanically neutral areas. 1) Paranasal sinuses a) Frontal sinus b) Ethmoid sinus c) Sphenoid sinus d) Maxillary sinus 2) Accessory tympanic spaces e) Mastoid air cells Sagittal crests in addition to temporal muscle orientations Hominids compared to pongids

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Bone remodeling Deposition: the biological process of laying down the bone Resorption: the biological process of removing the bone Direction of growth: 1) the direction of drift 2) the direction of displacement 3) the net direction of drift in addition to displacement. Drift: Growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling. The combinations of deposition in addition to resorption result in growth movement toward the depository surface. Displacement: The growth movement of a whole bone as a unit. The bone is carried away from its articulation in relation to other bones. Remodeling: A basic part of bone growth involves simultaneous deposition in addition to resorption on all inner in addition to outer surfaces of the entire bone. It provides regional changes in shape, dimensions, in addition to proportions. Deposition (+); Resorption (-); Direction of growth (arrow) The Growth of the Coronoid Process The Growth of M in addition to ible Deposition (blue arrow); resorption (white arrow)

The Remodeling (Growth) Direction: The “V” Principle Drift vs Displacement Drift: the growth movement of an enlarging portion of a bone by the remodeling. Displacement: The growth movement of a whole bone as a unit. Direction of growth: the net growth direction of drift plus displacement. Head (craniofacial complex) is a region, where a series of functions are carried out. These functions include vision, hearing, speech, mastication, swallowing & digestion, respiration, neural integration, in addition to others. The successful execution of a function requires biomechanical protection in addition to support. Moss’ craniofacial growth theory: Function of the craniofacial complex region is per as long as med by the Functional Cranial Components (F.C.C).

Introduction: definition, scope, in addition to objectives Kinematics in addition to dynamics Biomechanics: as long as ces, de as long as mation, stresses, strains Form in addition to Function Bone remodeling in addition to growth directions Moss’ Hypothesis: Functional Matrix Hypothesis Clinical applications References Enlow, D.H. (1990). H in addition to book of Facial Growth (3rd edition). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: W.B. Saunders Company. Proffit, W.R. (2000). Contemporary Orthodontics (3rd edition). St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, Inc. Moyers, R.E. (1988). H in addition to book of Orthodontics (4th edition). Chicago, Illinois: Year Book Medical Publishers, Inc. Ranly, DM (1980). A Synopsis of Craniofacial Growth. Norwalk, CT: Appleton-Century-Croft. Acknowledgments Thanks to Professor Melvin L. Moss Professor Letty Moss-Salentijn Professor Alfonso Solimene And Dr. Christel Hummert

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