Fundamental Physics at ESA J. Clavel ESA Science Directorate Overview Two dedica

Fundamental Physics at ESA J. Clavel ESA Science Directorate Overview Two dedica www.phwiki.com

Fundamental Physics at ESA J. Clavel ESA Science Directorate Overview Two dedica

Malone, Rich, Morning Drive On-Air Personality;Program Director has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Fundamental Physics at ESA J. Clavel ESA Science Directorate Overview Two dedicated missions in the Science Directorate LISA Pathfinder LISA Missions with aspects of FP in the Science Directorate Gaia Planck Mission concepts under assessment Fundamental Physics Explorer Minor contributions to nationally led missions Microscope (CNES) Missions in other Directorates but supported through Science Directorate ACES (led by Human Spaceflight) ACES

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ACES mission ESA mission conducted by Human Spaceflight To be installed on the ISS (Columbus module) Payload Cs fountain clock (PHARAO) Hydrogen maser (SHM) Microwave link Mission goals: Test of a new generation of space clocks Precise in addition to accurate time in addition to frequency transfer Fundamental physics tests Status: payload development Launch: 2010 Microscope CNES-led mission to investigate the equivalence principle Target sensitivity 10-15 Room-temperature experiment Measurement principle: compare the effect of gravity on two masses of different material 2 differential accelerometers in free-fall (PtRh/PtRh in addition to Ti/PtRh) Microscope ESA contributes N thrusters (FEEP) ONERA: inertial sensor development Development status Satellite PDR February 2006 Launch May 2010

Planck Measuring the CMB with unprecedented accuracy T/T = 2 × 10-6 (about 10 times better than WMAP) Angular resolution 5 arcmin (about 3 times better than WMAP) Wide frequency coverage (30–857 GHz). Payload Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) Intensity in addition to polarization at 33 GHz, 44 GHz in addition to 70 GHz Cryogenic detectors (20 K) High Frequency Instrument (HFI) Bolometric measurements (intensity in addition to polarisation) at 6 frequencies at 100 – 857 GHz Detector temperature 0.1 K Planck Fundamental physics with Planck Nature of Dark Energy in addition to Dark Matter Tests of & constraints on inflation Baryogenesis String theory Status Payload flight models under test, delivery to ESA July/August 2006 Launch Foreseen Q1 2008 (joint launch with Herschel on Ariane 5) Gaia – Taking a census of the galaxy Astrometric mission to measure positions, distances, in addition to space motions of stars in our galaxy About a 109 stars up to magnitude 20 median parallax errors: 7 as at 10 mag; 20-25 as at 15 mag; 200–300 as at 20 mag Distance accuracy: between 1% in addition to 10% Velocity accuracy: between 0.5 km/s in addition to 10 km/s Status Implementation phase Launch December 2011

Gaia science objectives Galaxy origin in addition to as long as mation; Physics of stars in addition to their evolution; Galactic dynamics in addition to distance scale; Solar System census; Large-scale detection of all classes of astrophysical objects including brown dwarfs, white dwarfs, in addition to planetary systems; Fundamental physics Fundamental Physics with Gaia Determine PPN parameters 1- < 5×10-7 1-< 3×10-4 Solar quadrupol moment J2 to 10-7–10-8 Variability of the gravitational constant tG/G to 10-12–10-13 yr-1 Constraints on gravitational wave energy at frequencies between 10-12 Hz in addition to 4×10-9 Hz Constraints on M in addition to from quasar microlensing LISA PF Precursor to LISA Demonstrating critical technologies as long as LISA Drag-free Micro-Newton Thrusters Interferometry Single spacecraft in Lissajous type orbit around L1 Mission duration 6 months Mission status: Mission PDR successful in February 2006 Flight hardware delivery Summer 2007 Launch in Q4 2009 LISA PF Payload Payload consists of a European contribution Two gravitational reference sensors Interferometric measurement system Drag free control system N thruster US contribution Disturbance reduction system – descoped! Drag free control system in addition to N thruster LISA PF Inertial Sensor LISA PF IMS LISA Mission to detect in addition to observe gravitational waves in addition to their sources Joint ESA/NASA mission Europe: Payload, Payload integration, propulsion module NASA: Payload, Payload integration, Spacecraft, launcher, operations Science operations will be conducted jointly Technological challenges Interferometric measurements to picometer accuracy Drag-free technology Low frequency stability Definition/Development: 2010 after completion of LISA PF Launch date ~2017 (present planning assumption) LISA mission concept Cluster of 3 spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit Spacecraft shield the test masses from external as long as ces (solar wind, radiation pressure) Allows measurement of amplitude in addition to polarisation of GW LISA mission concept Cluster of 3 spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit Trailing the Earth by 20° (50 million kilometers) Reducing the influence of the Earth-Moon system on the orbits Keeping the communication requirements (relatively) st in addition to ard LISA mission concept Cluster of 3 spacecraft in a heliocentric orbit Trailing the Earth by 20° (50 million kilometers) Equilateral triangle with 5 million kilometers arm length Results in easily measurable pathlength variations Orbit is still stable enough to allow as long as mission duration larger than 5 years LISA Science Goals Merging supermassive black holes Merging intermediate-mass/seed black holes Gravitational captures Galactic in addition to verification binaries Cosmological backgrounds in addition to bursts NASA/CXC/MPE/S. Komossa et al. Determine the role of massive black holes in galaxy evolution Make precision tests of Einstein’s Theory of Relativity Determine the population of ultra-compact binaries in the Galaxy Probe the physics of the early universe Call as long as CV Mission Proposals (1) First of 3 Calls (TBC) as long as implementation of CV2015-2025 Available budget as long as a ~2016 launch: ~320 M€ (1 effective budget year) The Call will nevertheless be fully open: No a priori size restriction, but clear cost guidelines Mission could be a small/medium size S/M mission (320 M€ cost to ESA) a large ESA alone L mission (650 M€ cost to ESA) Selection of L mission will serve as long as long term technological development as long as mission launch in 2020 Up to 2 S/M (depending on size) + 1 L missions will eventually be implemented Schedule of Call as long as proposals Call as long as mission proposals released 10 June 2006 Letters of Intent due 30 June 2006 Briefing to proposers at ESTEC July 2006 Mission proposals due December 2006 WG select 3 S-M & 3 L missions as long as study phase February 2007 All dates to be confirmed! Backup slides Malone, Rich KVNA-FM Morning Drive On-Air Personality;Program Director www.phwiki.com

ACES Mission Objectives I ACES Mission Objectives II ACES Mission Objectives III

S-M Missions schedule Assessment phases Jan 2007 – Dec 2008 Internal assessment phase in 2007 Competitive industrial assessment in 2008 Emphasis on payload, cost in addition to risks Presentation to Working Groups as long as prioritisation April 2009 SSAC recommendation as long as selection April 2009 Selection of 2 missions May 2009 Preparation & release of ITT Jun-Dec 2009 Start of industrial Definition Phase Jan 2010 SPC approval as long as development phase 1 mission Jun 2011 Launch Mid-end 2016 L Missions schedule Study in addition to Technology development phase Jan 2007 – Jun 2010 WG review in addition to prioritisation Sep 2010 SSAC recommendation as long as 1 L mission Oct 2010 Start Technology consolidation Phase Apr 2011 Start Definition Phase Apr 2013 Start Implementation phase Apr 2015 L Mission Launch 2020

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