Gender in addition to Educational in addition to Occupational Choices Jacquelynne S. Eccles University

Gender in addition to Educational in addition to Occupational Choices Jacquelynne S. Eccles University

Gender in addition to Educational in addition to Occupational Choices Jacquelynne S. Eccles University

Ross, Theresa, On-Air Personality has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Gender in addition to Educational in addition to Occupational Choices Jacquelynne S. Eccles University of Michigan Paper presented at the Gender Role Conference San Francisco April 2004 in addition to Chinese University of Hong Kong, February, 2004 Acknowledgements: This research was funded by grants from NIMH, NSF, in addition to NICHD to Eccles in addition to by grants from NSF, Spencer Foundation in addition to W.T. Grant to Eccles in addition to Barber Why Do Women in addition to Men Make Such Different Choices as long as Their Lives In most cultures, women in addition to men are concentrated in quite different occupations in addition to roles. Why My goal today is to provide one perspective on this quite complex question – a perspective grounded in Expectancy –Value Models of Achievement-related Choices Overview I began my research work in this area focused on one specific question: WHY ARE FEMALES LESS LIKELY TO GO INTO MATH AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE THAN MALES

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Overview 2 I became increasingly aware, however, that this question is a subset of two much more general questions: WHY DOES ANYONE DO ANYTHING WHAT PSYCHOLOGICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND SOCIAL FORCES INFLUENCE THE CRITICAL CHOICES PEOPLE MAKE ABOUT HOW TO SPEND THEIR TIME AND THEIR LIVES Goals Provide an overview of gender differences in occupational plans in addition to choices Discuss alternative explanations as long as these differences – focusing on my Expectancy – Value Model of Achievement-Related Choices Summarize our research findings relevant to this question in addition to this model Student responses to The Job Picture Story in addition to Typical Day When I’m Thirty Essay FEMALE MALE A 5% 95% B 14% 86% C 13% 87% D 27% 73% E 32% 68% F 55% 45% G 48% 52% H 55% 45% I 61% 39% J 85% 15% K 98% 2% L 85% 15% M 87% 13% N 97% 3% O 42% 58% N= 1987 N=1962 TOTAL N= 3949 A TRUCKDRIVER, CARPENTER, MECHANIC F DOCTOR, LAWYER, ARCHITECT, ACCT’NT K NURSE B PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE G ARTIST, ROCK STAR,SINGER, MUSICIAN L MODEL, DESIGNER, MOVIE STAR, DANCER C POLICE, FIREFIGHTER, MILITARY, PILOT H REPORTER, WRITER, TV ANNOUNCER M SECRETAR, FLIGHT, ATT. SALES CLERK D SCIENTIST. ENGINEER, COMPUTER SCI. I VETERINARIAN, FOREST RANGER, FARMER N UNPAID WORKER (HOMEMAKER, PARENT) E EXECUTIVE, BUSINESSPERSON, BANKER J TEACHER 0 THER

Participation in M/S/E careers In 1997, women represented 23% of all scientists in addition to engineers 63% of psychologists 42% of biologists 10% of physicists/astronomers 9% of engineers Source: National Science Foundation, 2000 Bachelor’s degrees in 2000 Source: NSF 02-327 Differences on Academic Indicators Females Earn Better School Marks than Males in All Subjects Areas at All Grade Levels Males Score Better than Females on Timed St in addition to ardized Tests Scores on Many Subject Areas Females are Now More Likely than Males to Pursue Many Forms of Advanced Education Males are More Likely than Females to be Placed in Remedial Educational Programs, to be Expelled from School, in addition to to Drop Out of School Prematurely

Common Explanations Biological Differences Brain differences – Hemispheric Specialization May be linked to verbal in addition to spatial skills Specialized Sensitivities as long as Learning in addition to Interests Such as preferences as long as speech input in addition to faces versus mechnical objects Do not know the actual mechanisms but genetic studies suggest these may be heritable in addition to may be sex-liked Disabilities Learning particular types of materials Social intelligence Anxieties Anxiety in addition to Per as long as mance Anxiety Per as long as mance Level Males Females Common Explanations Hormonal Prenatal Linked to developing organizational structure of brain in addition to other hormonal systems Postnatal Right after birth hormonal peaks Puberty Adulthood Activational systems

Psychological Differences Ability Self Concepts as long as Different Skill Areas Domain Specific Interests in addition to Preferences More General Differences in Values in addition to Goals Anxieties Social Experiences Family in addition to Peers Role Models Expectations Provision of Differential Experiences Schools in addition to Larger Society Differential Treatment Differential Teaching Practices as long as Different Subject Areas Very Difficult to Distinguish These Hypotheses All are Likely Influences In Addition, People Self-Socialize into the Culturally Approved Social Roles in addition to Niches

One Way to Frame the Question Do these differences exist even amongst a group of individuals who have sufficient intelligence to choose even the most dem in addition to ing intellectual careers For example amongst people who are highly gifted in both the verbal in addition to mathematical areas Current Gifted Research Similar differences emerge Females now more likely to go on to college but are still underrepresented in the physical sciences in addition to engineering

Another View Look at the proportion of women at each step along the pipeline Figure 1 Proportion of Females in Each Group Final View Put the question into a larger perspective – Why does anyone do anything

Subjective Task Value Interest Value – Enjoyment one gets from doing the activity itself Similar to Intrinsic Value Utility Value – Relation of the activity to one’s short in addition to long range goals Similar in some ways to Extrinsic Value Subjective Task Value Continued 3. Attainment Value: Extent to which engaging in the activity confirms an important component on one’s self-schema or increases the likelihood of obtaining a desired future self or avoiding an undesired future self. Individuals seek to confirm their possession of characteristics central to their self-schema. Various tasks provide differential opportunities as long as such confirmation. Individuals will place more value on those tasks that provide the opportunities as long as this confirmation. Individuals will be more likely to choice those activities that have high attainment value.

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Subjective Task Value Continued 4. Cost – Psychological Costs Fear of Success, Fear of Failure, Anxiety Financial Costs Lost Opportunities to Fulfill Other Goals or to do Other Activities Key Features of Model Focuses on Choice not on Deficits Points Out Importance of Studying the Origins of Individuals’ Perception of the Range of Possible Options Focuses on the Fact that Choices are made from a Wide Range of Positive Options How Does This Relate To Gender

Personal Experiences Subcultural Scripts, Beliefs, in addition to Stereotypes Societal Beliefs, Images, in addition to Stereotypes Personal Identities Self Concepts Personal Values Personal Goals Social Identities Salience Content Perception of Barriers And Benefits Due to One’s Group Membership Success Expectations Subjective Task Value Life Choices Gender-Roles in addition to Ability Self Concepts in addition to Personal Expectations Cultural Stereotypes about Which Gender is Supposed to be Good at Which Skills Extensive Socialization Pressures to Make Sure These Stereotypes are Fulfilled

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