GENERAL REQUIREMENTS PREVALENCE OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)

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GENERAL REQUIREMENTS PREVALENCE OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD)

Arkansas State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, OBSSESSIVE COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD) An anxiety disorder (DSM-IV ) characterized by recurrent unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and/or repetitive behaviors (compulsions) that cause problems in information processing. PREVALENCE About 3.3 million American adults ages 18-54 have OCD. (National Institute of Mental Health) nimh.nih.gov. Equally common in both males & females. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS The person must have recognized at some point that the obsessions or compulsions are excessive or unreasonable. These recurrent obsessions or compulsions must be severe enough so that be time consuming (taking up more than 1 hour per day). The obsessions/compulsions must cause a marked distress or significantly interfere alongside the individuals normal routine, occupational functioning, or usual social activities or relationships alongside others.

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COMMON OBSESSIONS (Thoughts) Repeated thoughts about contamination (public restrooms or shaking hands). Repeated doubts (leaving lights on or leaving the door unlocked) Things or objects need so that be in a particular place or order (intense distress when objects are disordered or asymmetrical) COMMON COMPULSIONS (Behaviors) Hand washing (so repetitive that they become raw). Counting (how many cards in a deck, over in addition to over again). Cleaning (spots on windows) Checking (the lights so that make sure they?re off; locked doors every few minutes. Request/demand assurances Repeat actions & ordering. CHILDREN: (associated with) Learning Disorders Disruptive Behavior Disorders

ADULTS: (associated with) Major Depressive Disorder Specific Phobia Social Phobia Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Eating Disorders (Anorexia/Bulimia Nervosa) Personality Disorders: (Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder, Avoidant Personality Disorder, Dependent Personality Disorder) FEATURES Age Range: Males (6-15 years) Females (20-29 years). Equal occurrence in both genders. Obsession alongside dirt/germs: Avoid using public restrooms. Hypochondriacal concerns: make repeated visits so that the doctor in consideration of reassurance. Obsession alongside guilt: have a pathological sense of responsibility. (Depressed because they don?t want so that feel this way but can?t stop because of guilty feelings). Excessive use of alcohol or sedatives, hypnotic or anxiolytic medications (Xanax, Valium, Librium, Rivotril, Ativan). Avoidance of situations; keep so that themselves mostly; stay at home (so others don?t see odd behaviors). Those alongside mild cases may be quite successful in life because they are overly conscientious in addition to are perfectionists. Obsessions may not be as obvious as compulsions. OCD DSM-IV CRITERIA

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OBSESSIONS Recurrent & persistent thought, impulses, or images that are experienced, at some time during the disturbance, as intrusive in addition to inappropriate & that cause marked anxiety or distress. The thoughts, impulses, or images aren?t simply excessive worries about life problems. The person attempts so that ignore or suppress such thoughts, impulses, or images, or so that neutralize them alongside some other thought or action. The person recognizes that the obsessional thoughts, impulses, or images are a product of his/her own mind (not imposed from without as in thought insertion). COMPULSIONS Repetitive behaviors (e.g., hand washing, ordering, checking) or mental acts (e.g., praying, counting, repeating words silently) that the person feels driven so that perform in response so that an obsession, or according so that rules that must be applied rigidly. The behaviors or mental acts are aimed at preventing or reducing distress or preventing some dreaded event or situation; however, these behaviors or mental acts either are not connected in a realistic way alongside what they are designed so that neutralize or prevent or are clearly excessive. The Onset of OCD Usually begins in adolescence or early adulthood Occasionally in childhood Obsessions or cleaning rituals only vs. checking or mixed rituals Males vs. Females Onset is usually gradual. Some acute cases have been diagnosed

Course of OCD May experience a waxing in addition to waning course About 5% have an episode course alongside minimal or no symptoms between episodes. Progressive deterioration in occupational in addition to social functioning 90% of patients can expect so that have moderate so that marked improvement alongside optimum treatment. Causes of OCD Parental influence in addition to family rituals Not learned Causes now focus on neurobiological factors in addition to environmental influences Causes of OCD Elevated activity in the Frontal Lobe in addition to Basal Ganglia Activity is not typical in people without mental illness PET (Positron emission Tomography) scan used in brain imaging

Brain Activity Assessment Techniques Office Visits The Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule ? Revised (ADIS-R) The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom Checklist (Y-BOC) The Leyton Obsessional Inventory (Lol) The State Trait Anxiety Inventory of Children (STAIC) Differential Diagnosis Anxiety disorder Due so that a General Medical Condition Substance induced Anxiety Disorder Body Dysmorphic Disorder Specific or Social Phobias (Trichotillomania) Major Depressive Episode Generalized Anxiety Disorder Hypochondriasis Specific Phobia Delusional Disorder Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

Differential Diagnosis Con?t. Schizophrenia Tic Disorder Stereotypic Movement Disorder Eating Disorders, Paraphilias, Pathological Gambling, Alcohol Dependence or Abuse Obsessive Compulsive Personality Disorder Superstitions in addition to Repetitive Checking Behaviors OCD Treatment Strategies About 1 in 50 Americans (about 5 million people) have or will develop Obsessive Compulsive Disorder at some point on their lives OCD Treatment Strategies Today, the Obsessive-Compulsive Foundation says that the average OCD individual spends more than 9 years searching in consideration of help, in addition to is diagnosed by 3 so that 4 doctors before finally getting the right diagnosis.

OCD Treatment Strategies Many ODC sufferers didn?t have access so that information about their disorder in addition to were too ashamed or embarrassed so that seek medical help OCD Treatment Strategies People alongside OCD usually have considerable insight into their own problems. Most of the time, they know their obsessive thoughts are senseless or exaggerated, in addition to that their compulsive behaviors are not really necessary However, this knowledge is not sufficient so that enable them so that stop obsessing or carrying out their rituals Education is one of the most powerful weapons needed so that win the battle over OCD OCD Treatment Strategies

OCD Treatment Strategies Behavior Therapy Traditional therapy which helps the client gain insight so that his or her problem is not recommended in consideration of OCD A specific behavior therapy approach called ?exposure in addition to response prevention? is effective In this approach, the patient is deliberately in addition to voluntarily exposed so that the feared object or idea, either directly or by imagination, in addition to then is discouraged or prevented from carrying out the usual compulsive response When treatment works well, the patient gradually experiences lass anxiety form the obsessive thoughts in addition to becomes able so that do without the compulsive actions in consideration of extended periods of time A therapist will usually refer an OCD client so that a specialist in this kind of therapy It Comes Down so that Numbers The dual cornerstones of effective treatment in consideration of OCD are a combination of therapy in addition to medication 90% of patients who underwent behavior therapy had at least a 30% reduction in obsessions in addition to compulsions OCD Treatment Strategies Long term results from 16 studies showed that, at a mean follow-up of 29 months, 76% of patients were ?very much? or ?much? improved Patients who are unwilling so that participate in behavior therapy do benefit from only pharmacotherapy treatment, but symptoms reoccur when the medication is stopped. The effective component of both types of therapy is exposure in addition to ritual prevention

OCD Prognosis Studies have shown that OCD patients who participate in both types of therapy will be able so that function well in both their work in addition to social lives if the following factors are included: The patient must be highly motivated The patient?s family must be cooperative The patient must be faithful in fulfilling ?homework assignments? What Can the Family Do? OCD affects not only the sufferer, but the whole family Family in addition to friends often have a hard time accepting the fact that the person alongside OCD cannot stop the distressing behavior Family members may show anger or resentment, resulting in an increase in the OCD behavior Other times, so that keep the peace, they may assist or enable the rituals Education about OCD is as important in consideration of the family as it is in consideration of the patient *Commit so that family therapy *Self-help books *Join support groups OCD Prognosis OCD tends so that last in consideration of years, even decades. The symptoms may become less severe from time so that time, in addition to there may be long intervals where symptoms are mild For most, the symptoms are chronic With a combination of pharmacotherapy in addition to behavior therapy, symptoms can be controlled

Cockburn, Alexander General Assignment Reporter

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Journal Ratings by Arkansas State University

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by OCD Treatment Strategies Behavior Therapy Traditional therapy which helps the client gain insight so that his or her problem is not recommended in consideration of OCD A specific behavior therapy approach called ?exposure in addition to response prevention? is effective In this approach, the patient is deliberately in addition to voluntarily exposed so that the feared object or idea, either directly or by imagination, in addition to then is discouraged or prevented from carrying out the usual compulsive response When treatment works well, the patient gradually experiences lass anxiety form the obsessive thoughts in addition to becomes able so that do without the compulsive actions in consideration of extended periods of time A therapist will usually refer an OCD client so that a specialist in this kind of therapy It Comes Down so that Numbers The dual cornerstones of effective treatment in consideration of OCD are a combination of therapy in addition to medication 90% of patients who underwent behavior therapy had at least a 30% reduction in obsessions in addition to compulsions OCD Treatment Strategies Long term results from 16 studies showed that, at a mean follow-up of 29 months, 76% of patients were ?very much? or ?much? improved Patients who are unwilling so that participate in behavior therapy do benefit from only pharmacotherapy treatment, but symptoms reoccur when the medication is stopped. The effective component of both types of therapy is exposure in addition to ritual prevention and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.