GEOG 215- Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended GEOG 214 -Meteorology or

GEOG 215- Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended GEOG 214 -Meteorology or www.phwiki.com

GEOG 215- Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended GEOG 214 -Meteorology or

Munsey, Dave, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal GEOG 215- Climatology Expectations Strongly recommended GEOG 214 -Meteorology or GEOG 112 – Earth Systems Science a science course within geography A lot of terminology Application of terminology Attendance in class is essential Note taking while listening is critical toward obtaining in as long as mation needed to per as long as m well in the class Reading the chapters is important Course structure 3 exams in addition to a number of class assignments – exams 1 in addition to 2 are worth 125 points – Final exam is worth 200 points semi-comprehensive 60% new content 40% old content exams are curved up to 10% of total pts based on the highest score achieved -class assignments are worth 50 points total Total points as long as course = 500 points Exam curve Example 1- The highest score is 119 out of 125 points. The curve would be 6 points. Thus everyone has 6 points added to their score, making the top score 100% or 125 pts Example 2- The highest score is 99 out of 125 points. The curve would be 12.5 points or 10% of 125 possible. Thus everyone gets 12.5 points added to their score, making the top score 89% or 111.5 points

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Exam dates are fixed in addition to will not be changed. They are: Exam 1- Friday, February 13, 2008 9-10 AM Exam 2- Wednesday, March 26, 2008 9-10 AM Final Exam- Wednesday, May 7, 2008 9-11 AM Legitimate reason to miss an exam (academics, athletics, illness) – you must in as long as m me at least one week be as long as e the scheduled exam to make arrangements as long as the make up exam. Illness- call me or email. Make ups are at my discretion. The final exam will not be rescheduled to accommodate travel plans as long as students wishing to leave as long as summer break early. Chapter 1 Climatology Atmosphere-One of the critical components on our planet: Thermal regulator- movement of energy from areas with excess (Equatorial) to areas with limited (Polar). Protective shield- prevents, limits or alters harmful materials from reaching the Earth. Essential as long as Respiration- Most Living organisms (plant in addition to animal) require interaction with gases in the atmosphere Important fields of Study Aerology- study of the structure in addition to chemical in addition to physical interactions of the various components in the atmosphere. Meteorology- deals with air mass motion, air mass characteristics such as temperature, moisture in addition to pressure, in addition to weather phenomena such as storms, on a short time scale. Climatology- the same as with meteorology only over a longer time scale. Both average in addition to extreme conditions

Atmospheric variables Air Temperature: units -> C, F, K Clouds: type, height (elevation) amount Barometric pressure: bars, millibars, mm or in Dew Point Temperature: F or C Precipitation: kind (rain, snow sleet, etc., in addition to amount inches or cm Wind velocity in addition to direction: MPH, Knots, KmPH in addition to N, S, E, W, NW, NE, SE, SW Degree of sunshine: qualitative estimate These constitute the Current or Prevailing Weather conditions E

Constant gases relative proportions of these gases remains the vertically to around 80 km many of these are present in small amounts Most important abundant constant gases are Nitrogen- relatively inactive Oxygen – very active Argon – very inactive Variable gases The concentrations vary throughout time in addition to space e.g., Ozone, CO2, Water Vapor Periodic table of elements Yellow squares are gases

Inches of Precipitation per month Temperature Climogram Gas Laws Boyles’ first law: PoVo=P1V1 = K Pressure = P; Volume=V; Constant= K 0= time 1; 1= time 2 an increase in pressure results in a decrease in volume in addition to vice versa Boyles’ second law: P/D = K D= Density As pressure increases so does the density of the gas Gay-Lussac’s Law Relates Temperature (t) in addition to volume (Vx) with pressure constant Vt = Vo(1+t/273) where Vt is a volume at temperature t in (C) in addition to Vo is the volume at temperature 0 C. Charles’ law Relationship between Pressure in addition to Temperature when Volume is constant Pt = Po (1+ t /273) Pt is a pressure at temperature t in (C) in addition to Po is the pressure at temperature 0 C.

Structure: Atmosphere has discrete zones each with specific characteristics Atmosphere is base loaded- most stuff is present in higher amounts in the lower zones

Troposhpere/Tropopause The lowermost part of the atmosphere Most turbulent vertical in addition to horizontal air motion Variable height Poles: 9-12 Km Equator: 16-18 km Think WHY Most moisture here thus most cloud cover in this layer Area of active weather This is the area with most meteorological phenomena Separated from over lying layer by a zone of overlapping zones called the Tropopause can be seen as towering clouds encounter this boundary in addition to get sheared off in the next layer punching through the Tropopause into the Stratosphere Stratosphere /Stratopause Stable dry in addition to little vertical motion Lowermost region in Stratosphere has high velocity horizontal winds jetstreams are located here Temperature remains constant throughout most of the stratosphere still cold though!!! Ozone layer (ozonosphere) resides primarily in this zone Separated from overlying layer by the Stratopause overlapping zones create this boundary mostly determined by temperature change

Mesosphere Decreasing temperature with altitude the mesosphere is part of a thicker layer or zone called the ionosphere Ionosphere created by the Sun’s incoming radiative energy the radiation strips electrons from atoms ions interact with other ions incoming in addition to encountered in the atmosphere creates some interesting phenomena Aurora Borealis (Northern in addition to Southern Lights) interference with electrical systems on Earth B(northern hemisphere) AA (southern hemisphere)

Munsey, Dave Fox 10 News at 10 PM - KSAZ-TV Meteorologist www.phwiki.com

Above the Mesosphere exists several zones with discrete elemental compositions The lowermost part (up to 120 km) of these zones is called the Thermosphere Otherwise they are referred to by their gaseous composition e.g., Nitrogen, Oxygen, Helium, in addition to Hydrogen

Munsey, Dave Meteorologist

Munsey, Dave is from United States and they belong to Fox 10 News at 10 PM – KSAZ-TV and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Munsey, Dave deal with the subjects like Meteorology

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This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by Drury College and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.