Geography 12: Maps in addition to Mapping Today’s Theme: trans as long as mations From earth to map The scale trans as long as mation Small scale in addition to large scale

Geography 12: Maps in addition to Mapping Today’s Theme: trans as long as mations From earth to map The scale trans as long as mation Small scale in addition to large scale www.phwiki.com

Geography 12: Maps in addition to Mapping Today’s Theme: trans as long as mations From earth to map The scale trans as long as mation Small scale in addition to large scale

Cantu, Maria, Manager of AM has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Geography 12: Maps in addition to Mapping Lecture 3: The Scale Trans as long as mation Today’s Theme: trans as long as mations World or section of the world Map: collections of symbols My symbolic representation of a trans as long as mation From earth to map Start: Earth or part of the earth Next: Scale trans as long as mation Next: Projection trans as long as mation Next: Symbolization in addition to representation Last: Reading in addition to interpretation End: Mental “image” of earth or part of earth

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The scale trans as long as mation The real world 1:400M A representation of the world Small scale in addition to large scale In many fields, biology in addition to ecology as long as example, “scale” is used as a more general term than in cartography Large scale = global, extensive Small scale = detailed, localized Usage is opposite in cartography My solution is never to say “scale” Use “map scale” or “cartographic scale” Use detailed or extensive scale Scale gives us a sense of how big Map Scale Map scale is based on the representative fraction, the ratio of a distance on the map to the same distance on the ground Most maps fall between 1:1 million in addition to 1:1000 Digital in addition to web maps are scale-less because maps can be enlarged in addition to reduced in addition to plotted at many scales other than that of the original data But in fact, all maps when displayed have a scale

Non-scientific Quiz 3 If a globe is one meter around (circumference), what is its approximate scale a. One inch to five feet b. 1:250 000 C. 1:24 000 d. 1: 1 million e. 1:40 million Non-scientific Quiz 3 If a globe is one meter around (circumference), what is its scale One meter on the map corresponds to 40 million meters on the ground RF = map distance / ground distance RF = 1meter /40 000 000 meter Globe scale is 1 to 40 million Or 1:40 million or 1/40 million Three ways of communicating scale The RF As a ratio e.g. 1:200,000 As a fraction e.g. 1/200,000 Often abbreviated e.g. 1:24K Beware of periods in addition to commas Equivalent lengths E.g. Inch to a mile E.g. One inch to 2000 feet As a graphic

Graphic scale Advantages of a graphic scale Can be used as long as direct measurements on the map Is true at whatever enlargement or reduction you use on the map Can show different units, e.g. miles in addition to kilometers BUT cannot account as long as scale differences on the map May be directionally biased But Universal plotting chart Linear distance is a function of Latitude! Means distances N-S Different from E-W in addition to diagonals

A word on units English units st in addition to ardized as long as mapping in addition to surveying Inch-foot-yard-rod-chain-furlong-mile 12-3-16.5ft-66ft-10-8 A mile is 5280 ft International Nautical mile = 6076.11549 ft = 1852 m Nautical mile (6080 ft.) = one minute of arc of a great circle The “mile high” city Remember Datums Three markers on the steps of the Colorado State Capitol that identify this point. The first marker was installed in 1909 on the fifteenth step, but was stolen several times be as long as e a more permanent “ONE MILE ABOVE SEA LEVEL” marker was engraved in 1947. The second marker was placed in 1969 by Colorado State University engineering students on the eighteenth step, after resurveying the elevation. Third marker was placed in 2003, after surveyors using the new national vertical datum, determined that the thirteenth step was exactly at one-mile above sea level.

A note on areas 144 square inches = one square foot Note 10 square feet is not ten feet square 9 sq. ft. = 1 square yard 160 square rods = 10 sq. chains = 1 acre 640 acres = one square mile Baseball diamond around the bases = 90 feet square=8100 sq. ft.=752.49 square meters Fortunately, we have the metric system 1000 mm = 1m 1000 m = 1 km 1000 mm x 1000 mm = 1 square meter (metre) 10 000 square meters = 1 hectare The mantra The representative fraction is the map distance divided by the ground distance in the same units

Repeat after me The representative fraction is the map distance divided by the ground distance in the same units Louder! The representative fraction is the map distance divided by the ground distance in the same units Now what was the representative fraction again

The as long as mula RF = MD / GD Only issue: different units feet, yards, miles; mm, m, km Calculating scale from a map Known distances, calculate scale Bridge to cemetery on map = 126 mm Bridge to cemetery on the ground = 3024m RF = MD / GD = 126 / 3024000 RF = 1: 24 000

Cantu, Maria KDAP-AM Manager of AM www.phwiki.com

Scale of a baseball earth Baseball circumference = 226 mm Earth circumference approx 40 million meters RF is : 1:177 million Calculating ground distance from a map Known scale, calculate distances Map distance = 300mm Map scale = 1:50 000 RF = MD / GD so GD = MD / RF 1/RF is the denominator GD = 300 mm x 50 000 = 15 000m

The paper strip-to-graphic scale trick Move the paper to the graphic scale Read off distance Trick works along roads

Some common map scales Round numbers makes life easier 1:24 000 1:50 000 1:100 000 1:62 500 1:63 360 1:250 000 1:500 000 1: 1M The take-home The map scale trans as long as mation is the first, in addition to changes data about the earth into a representation at a particular scale Don’t use the terms large in addition to small scale Most maps are between 1:1000 in addition to 1:400M RF = GD / MD The paper strip trick works Most maps are at st in addition to ard scales, like 1:50 000 Computer-based maps can be zoomed

Cantu, Maria Manager of AM

Cantu, Maria is from United States and they belong to KDAP-AM and they are from  Douglas, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Cantu, Maria deal with the subjects like Local News

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