Globalisation-A Historical Context The Asian Scenario New Forms of Plunder Stabilisation Policies in addition to SAP Ethnic & Communal Tensions
Feldman, Larry, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Globalisation, Gender in addition to Employment Relations in India Prof. Vibhuti Patel Head, Department of Economics SNDT Womens University, Smt. Nathibai Road, Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Phone-+91-22-22052970, Emailfirstname.lastname@example.org Globalisation-A Historical Context Marked feature of neo liberal policy is enlightened self- interest activated through market as long as ces. Impact on urban, rural in addition to dalit /tribal poor women as paid, underpaid in addition to unpaid workers of the economy During the 1990s, employment of middle-aged men in addition to women decreased in addition to employment of adolescent girls in addition to child labour increased. Women were in addition to are given less skilled in addition to underpaid jobs. The Asian Scenario South Asian (India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Srilanka, Nepal) in addition to South East Asian (Thail in addition to , Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia) countries, Indochina (Laos, Kampuchea in addition to Vietnam) in addition to China are flooded with Sweatshops, ghetto labour markets in addition to stigmatised migrant workers. ASEAN countries have established of Special Economic Zones that ensure flexibalisation of the labour as long as ce to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). The relationship between the as long as mal sector in addition to the decentralised sector is a dependent relationship where the as long as mal sector has control over capital in addition to markets in addition to the ‘in as long as mal’ sector works as an ancillary. New Globalisation triangles-hub as long as finance capital, manufacturing hubs in addition to suppliers of cheap labour
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New Forms of Plunder Primitive accumulation in its classical as long as m included plunder, slavery in addition to colonialism, while primitive accumulation in the contemporary period includes Sweat-shops, labour concentration camps in addition to criminalisation of the working class coupled with super-exploitation of the same. Women are the last colony Stabilisation Policies in addition to SAP As a result of Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP), sacked/ retrenched as long as mal sector workers in addition to employees are as long as ced to work in the in as long as mal sector. Victims of Voluntary Retirement Scheme have downward economic mobility, From blue collar to no collar. Rationalisation, mechanisation in addition to automation have had labour reducing implications. Budgetary cuts as long as balwadis in addition to crèches enhanced the burden of poor working women. FTZs in addition to EPZs thrive on young womens super-exploitation. The employers overlook occupational health hazards. Ethnic & Communal Tensions Co-existence of high wage isl in addition to s in the sea of pauperised working class has enhanced human misery in addition to social conflict in the context of massive reduction in the welfare budgets of the nation states in South Asia in addition to South East Asia. With rising ethnic in addition to communal tension jeopardising economic activities, visible in addition to invisible activities of underground extra-legal economy is displaying a tendency to exp in addition to . Stigmatisation as well as instrumentalist use of Bangladeshi workers in India, migrant workers in Mumbai continues- Captured in An in addition to Patwardhans film Hamara sheher in the 1980s
Dual Economy Model INDIVIDUALS WITH SIMILAR LEVELS OF EDUCATION & SKILLS get differential wages due to casualisation of the work as long as ce. Introduction of contract system in public sector has institutionalised dual economy model. Differential Wage Policies in public as well as private sector- Permanent workers/employees Adhoc /Consolidated salaried workers Daily wagers Clock hour workers Subcontracting by male workers to women workers-menial chores in railways, banks, teachers in educational institutions Job & Wage Discrimination Immigrants face job discrimination in pre-entry phase & wage discrimination in post entry phase. Migrant workers remain the first to be fired in addition to the last to be hired. Dualistic Models promotes differentiation based on language, caste, religion, gender, age, migration status, ethnic background in addition to exclusion from in as long as mal networks (Cooperative societies, social clubs, associations, cultural organisations) as long as upward economic mobility. External Sector Majority of the toiling poor rot in the external sector in which real wages change at disparate rates. Institutions like extended family, caste in addition to village nexus play an important role in providing safety nets to migrant workers. Burgeoning GHETTO LABOUR MARKETS are perpetuating the law of jungle in the industrial scenario. As a result a situation arises where legal apartheid faced by micro-entrepreneurs at the foot of the economy. Workers in casual sector are predominantly young in addition to single men in addition to women, while workers in regular sector are older in addition to married.
Segmentation in the Labour Market Segmentation begins in the rural areas where the asset-less poor in the margin of economy migrate to the cities. Asset owners in rural as well as urban areas are deriving maximum advantage of Globalisation. 1. Income differs widely between these segments. 2. Mobility between them is limited The asset-less poor women are most adversely affected by globalisation as traditional support systems of kinship in addition to extended family networks have been eroded. Displacement due to mega development project renders poor women homeless in addition to unemployed. Researches by womens studies scholars in addition to gender economists in Asia (APDC, Gabriella, CAW), Africa (AAWORD) in addition to Latin America (DAWN) over last 2 decades have shown that Globalisation has enhanced patriarchal control over womens sexuality, fertility in addition to labour by superimposing commercial values on the conventional values throughout the world. Globalisation has accentuated survival struggles of households managed by single, widowed, divorced, separated in addition to deserted women. Arjun Sengupta Committees Report The Arjun Sengupta Committee report (2006) is a stark reminder of the huge size in addition to poor conditions in this sector. The Report has revealed that in India, almost 370 million people- more than 85% of the working population in India work in the unorganised sector. Of these, at least 120 million are women. They contribute around 60% to the national economic output of the country. Around 28 crore work in the rural sector, of which an estimated 22 crore are in the agricultural sector. Around 6 crore are in urban areas. Women make up 11-12 crore, of which around 8 crore are engaged in agriculture.
Concerns of Women in the Work as long as ce The Employment Guarantee Scheme needs to be exp in addition to ed in addition to improved as long as urban workers. The focus of such employment schemes can be enhancement in addition to constant up gradation of skills. The National Renewal Fund should be extended to cover the unorganized sector in addition to a substantial part should go into the retraining of workers. Social audit of Janani Suraksha Yojana on maternal health Crèches should be provided as long as children of all workers in addition to not merely women workers irrespective of the number of employees. There could be a common fund as long as each industry. Social Audit of Workers rights, existing legislations on social security in addition to social protection of workers Urgent need as long as Prevention of Sexual Harassment of Women at Work-place Act Gender audit of Budget is an important tool in the h in addition to s of state as long as affirmative action as long as improvement of gender relations through reduction of gender gap in the development process. It can help to reduce economic inequalities, between men in addition to women as well as between the rich in addition to the poor. Food security, public health, vocational training Housing, l in addition to rights, relocation in addition to rehabilitation of the displaced continued- The National Renewal Fund must be extended to cover the unorganized sector in addition to a substantial part should go into the retraining of workers. Creches must be provided as long as children of all workers in addition to not merely women workers irrespective of the number of employees. There could be a common fund as long as each industry. Implementation of the Unorganised Sector Social Security Act 2008 is the most crucial step as long as ensuring basic human rights of in as long as mal sector workers in addition to as long as humanizing employment relations as long as women workers.
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