Globalisation: some definitions Children in addition to global commercial culture

Globalisation: some definitions Children in addition to global commercial culture www.phwiki.com

Globalisation: some definitions Children in addition to global commercial culture

Smith, Camden, General Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal IE 2B4 Children in addition to Family in National in addition to International Context 2009-2010 03/12/09 Clotilde Giner Two-week examination of the relationships between globalisation in addition to childhood: 1st week: Confronting ideals of global childhood with reality 2nd week: Considering the effects of globalisation on children’s lives nationally in addition to internationally Objective: Gain an awareness of how childhoods are changing from a global perspective 03/12/09 A few definitions of globalisation The different as long as ms of globalisation in addition to some of their impacts on children’s lives Two main questions considered during the lecture: Is globalisation ( in addition to its consequences) bringing children’s experiences in addition to cultures closer to each other Does it lead to the homogenisation of children’s lives 03/12/09

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Globalisation: some definitions ‘the removal of barriers to free trade in addition to the closer integration of national economies’ (Stiglitz 2003: ix) ‘reductions in barriers to transworld contacts. People become more able – physically, legally, culturally, in addition to psychologically – to engage with each other in ‘one world’. (Scholte 2002: 14) “a process that opens nation states to many influences that originate beyond their borders. These changes are likely to decrease the primacy of national economic, political, in addition to social institutions, thereby affecting the everyday context in which children grow up in addition to interact with the rest of society. (Kaufman in addition to Rizzini 2002: 4) 03/12/09 On-going debate on its historical origins Existence of economic, political in addition to cultural exchanges between national countries as long as centuries However, intensification of these processes due to new technologies, including ICTs Countries have become more intertwined post WWII 03/12/09 Political globalisation = Increasing number of organisations which influence the world as a whole, e.g. the United Nations; The World Bank, etc Economic globalisation = increasing occurrence, speed in addition to intensity of production, trading in addition to financial exchange Key role of trans-national corporations Cultural globalisation = growth in the exchange of cultural practices between nations in addition to peoples 03/12/09

Increase in scale of international trade in addition to investment from 1980s Growth in intensity in 1990s: Removal of barriers to international trade Opening up of economies to as long as eign investment Liberalisation of financial flows = Adoption of neo-liberal policies worlwide Key role of international governmental organisations in addition to NGOs Generated unprecedented levels of wealth 03/12/09 Uneven manifestation of globalisation in addition to its impact on children’s lives Improvement in child well-being in countries with: Robust human in addition to physical infrastructure Adequate social policies Prudent macroeconomic policies Free access to as long as eign markets 03/12/09 Shift to a market economy leading to: Increase in wage-based employment Increased workload as long as women Children in addition to young people having additional burden of responsibilities Key role of the income-earning woman in improving children’s health: allocating resources towards food 03/12/09

Integration in the world economy from the late 1970s through deregulation in addition to external liberalisation Decrease in child poverty rates in the 1990s in addition to overall improvement of child well-being But important regional disparities in child well-being Comparative decline of government spending as long as social purposes from mid-1980s to late 1990s 03/12/09 Unequal distribution of the gains in child well-being, mainly affecting: Children in large parts of the Global South Children in remote areas in addition to in urban poor families in relatively successful countries Orphans/other children in AIDS-affected economies Refugee children in addition to children affected by war Widening gaps in child well-being between the advantaged in addition to the disadvantaged 03/12/09 Amartya Sen, Foreword, Make Trade Fair, Oxfam 2002, “Global interaction, rather than insulated isolation, has been the basis of economic progress in the world. Trade, along with migration, communication, in addition to dissemination of scientific in addition to technical knowledge, has helped to break the dominance of rampant poverty in addition to the pervasiveness of ‘nasty, brutish in addition to short’ lives that characterized the world. And yet, despite all the progress, life is still severely nasty, brutish in addition to short as long as a large part of the world population. The great rewards of globalized trade have come to some, but not to others.” 03/12/09

High number of governmental in addition to non-governmental organisations involved with children, e.g. UNICEF, Save the Children, Committee on the Rights of the Child UNCRC = expression of the political globalisation Millenium Development Goals: new objectives to harness globalisation 03/12/09 Millenium Development Goals adopted by the United Nations to ensure that “globalization becomes a positive as long as ce“ (UNESCO 2006) Global partnership as long as development in developing countries aiming to alleviate the adverse impact of globalisation 03/12/09 Major accomplishments made in education Enrolment in primary education increased from 83% in 2000 to 88% in 2007 Most of the progress in regions lagging the furthest behind: Increase by 15% in sub-Saharan Africa Increase by 11% in Southern Asia Still important inequalities in education based on gender, ethnicity in addition to geographical location 03/12/09

Steady decline of deaths of children under five worldwide — from 12.6 in 1990 to around 9 million in 2007, despite population growth. Recent improvements in Sub-Saharan countries: -Distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets to fight against malaria -Second chance’ immunizations to fight against measles. 03/12/09 Growth of cross-cultural contacts in addition to exchanges of practices between nations Facilitated by political in addition to economic globalisation Key role of new technologies, e.g. Television, mass telecommunications, the internet Travel, immigration in addition to cultural diversity as both resulting from in addition to enhancing cultural globalisation 03/12/09 New socio-technical systems of communication In as long as mation, values in addition to images that most children routinely engage with, esp. through television Childhood culture is becoming more homogenised as the same products, as long as example toys, games in addition to clothes, become available everywhere However, many children in the world still do not have television in their homes, in addition to books are rarities. 03/12/09

Children in addition to global commercial culture Children as participants in a commercial market, involved in a culture of consumption (Lindstrom) An average child in the United States, Australia in addition to the UK sees between 20-40,000 commercials a year Strong personal power in addition to influence over parental purchasing choices 03/12/09 Great levels of inequality in addition to uneven distribution of globalisation Creation of global children’s desires But no st in addition to ardised access to global consumer culture: Children’s global consumer culture still only a ‘project’: not available to all children, esp. in large parts of the Global South (Langer 2003) But increasing penetration – see Mcintyre (Langer 2003) 03/12/09 The proliferation in addition to globalisation of media are among the key factors that have shaped in addition to defined the current generation of young people. (Unicef survey 2004) Presenting opportunities in addition to risks according to Unicef survey 2004: Opportunities: broadens children’s outlooks in addition to provide more equal access to in as long as mation Risks: cultural identification in addition to values. 03/12/09

Debates on the impact of media globalisation (Buckingham 2007) 1. Global media as agents of cultural homogenisation (Morley in addition to Robins 1995) 2. A process of accelerated exclusion in addition to marginalisation of large parts of the South (Nyamnjoh 2002) 3. A new as long as m of ‘hybridity’ based on the merging of global media as long as ms with local traditions in addition to idioms – greater diversity (de Block in addition to Buckingham 2007) 03/12/09 A synchronisation of tastes in addition to habits Globalisation of children’s programme production in addition to animation (Westcott 2002) = Three American TV companies producing half of the world’s children’s programmes In Britain, Ofcom called in 2007 as long as a national debate on the future of children’s TV in Britain Global domination of American culture at the expense of traditional diversity Views on Disney (Buckingham 2001) 03/12/09 Media as a great luxury as long as most children in Africa No access to media content as long as most children in rural areas or poor urban families In the case of elite African children: consumption of media targeted at children in affluent countries – second h in addition to consumption 03/12/09

Smith, Camden KTHQ-FM General Manager www.phwiki.com

Global in addition to local components: “glocalisation” While the objects of children’s desires are global, they are consumed locally (Langer 2003) Pokémon (Tobin 2002): Dominating children’s consumption worldwide from 1996 to 2000 Success based on adaptation to local traditions in addition to idioms = localising process But differences in access to (localised) Pokémon Teletubbies (Buckingham 2007) 03/12/09 Children’s media reception taking place in a particular context Endowing contents with local meanings Children able to use in addition to interpret media content selectively (Buckingham 2007) Possible as long as children to assume multiple identifications that draw from different cultural repertoires, depending on the context 03/12/09 Global engagement does not mean homogenisation Mitigated by local contexts in addition to children’s agency, i.e. the extent to which children can participate in determining the frameworks within which they live Child as a competent social being who has the capacity to think critically about advertisement in addition to media contents 03/12/09

A child-friendly economic policy A new pattern of globalization that is socially just in addition to fair Permanent observatory monitoring the impact of mainstream economic policies on child rights Regulation of privatised utilities (water, sanitation, electricity, telecommunications) to ensure universal access to these goods 03/12/09 Child advocacy: Need as long as more effective use of the vast positive potential of mass media in addition to new technologies to advocate as long as , in addition to enrich the lives of, children in addition to young people worldwide. 03/12/09 Impact of globalisation on your life as a child (as compared to your parents’ life as children), your children’s life/any child you know or have met (as compared to your life as children) ! Think in terms of: Means of communication (incl. with family in addition to friends abroad) Life patterns (migration, studies abroad, travel ) Work /Economic situation Consumption patterns (food/drinks, accessories, toys, clothes, TV content) 03/12/09

Has globalisation led to the st in addition to ardisation of children’s lives across the world Different steps: Approach of the question (definition of the words, etc) Development of an argumentation in as long as med by readings, lecture notes, discussion in addition to your own opinion! Provision of examples to support your arguments Writing of a structured assignment, with introduction in addition to conclusion 03/12/09

Smith, Camden General Manager

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