Heat in addition to Power Sources as long as Buildings Overview energy requirements of buildings t

Heat in addition to Power Sources as long as Buildings Overview energy requirements of buildings t www.phwiki.com

Heat in addition to Power Sources as long as Buildings Overview energy requirements of buildings t

Shedd, Bill, Operations Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Heat in addition to Power Sources as long as Buildings Overview energy requirements of buildings traditional energy sources carbon emissions calcs LZC energy sources low-carbon energy sources renewable (zero-carbon) energy sources space heating hot water electricity lighting appliances cooling also as long as space heating in addition to hot water Energy Required

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distribution: cables, ducts, fans, pumps, piping, etc. delivery: radiators, underfloor heating, lights, diffusers, etc. environmental system control: thermostats, dampers, valves, timers, PID controllers, etc. sources: boilers, chillers, electricity supply Traditional Energy Sources space heating – gas, oil or solid fuel boilers, direct electric, electric storage heating hot water – gas, oil or solid fuel boilers, direct electric heating electrical equipment in addition to appliances – power from the grid ultimate energy source typically fossil fuels Boilers the main function of the boiler is to convert the potential energy of a fuel to heat In the UK this is typically in the as long as m of hot water or steam (larger systems) boilers can be: condensing (recover latent heat from flue gases) combination (instant hot water) typical device efficiencies range from 70-90% depending upon age, features in addition to fuel type fuels: natural gas, oil, solid fuel

Grid grid electricity ultimately comes from large central power stations: combined cycle gas turbine (=50+%) coal/oil power station (=35%) nuclear power station (=35%) grid electricity carbon intensity: 0.53 kgCO2/kWh (DEFRA) Emissions how do we calculate emissions example – natural gas: CH4 + 2O2 CO2 + 2H2O (16) (44) or 1 kg 2.75 kgCO2/kgCH4 or x (12/44) = 0.75 kgC/kgCH4 (CO2 in addition to Carbon coefficients resp.) energy content of nat. gas 93MJ/m3 or 51.12 MJ/kg or 14.2 kWh/kg so as long as an 80% efficient boiler, C emission as long as 1kWh of heat C = (energy/(efficiency x energy content)) x carbon coefficient C = (1/(0.8 x 14.2)) x 0.75 = 0.07 kg C/kWh = 0.24 kg CO2/kWh Emissions Similarly . so as long as an 35% efficient coal power station C emission as long as 1kWh of electricity C = (energy/(efficiency x energy content)) x carbon coefficient C = (1/(0.35 x 10)) x 0.9 = 0.26 kg C/kWh = 0.94 kg CO2/kWh

distribution: cables, ducts, fans, pumps, piping, etc. delivery: radiators, underfloor heating, lights, diffusers, etc. environmental system control: thermostats, dampers, valves, timers, PID controllers, etc. LZC sources: CHP, PV, solar thermal, etc. sources: boilers, chillers, electricity supply Low Carbon Energy Systems Combined Heat in addition to Power (CHP) CHP (combined heat in addition to power) is the simultaneous generation of heat in addition to power from a single conversion device CHP technologies: ICE – internal combustion engine SE – stirling engine gas turbine fuel cell (SOFC)

CHP CHP is classed as low carbon as it makes use of the waste heat produced by a thermodynamic cycle this is not done in conventional power generation – the heat is typically rejected to atmosphere CHP 25 electricity 65 heat 100 fuel 7 waste 72 fuel 83 waste 108 fuel 180 fuel total 90% eff. boiler 30% eff. power station 90% eff. CHP 10 waste CHP the CHP prime mover depends upon the application 1kWe >1MWe Stirling ICE (gas) ICE (diesel) Gas turbine

CHP typical device efficiencies : 85-95% heat/power ratios: 8:1 stirling engine; 2:1 ICE; 1:1 gas turbine fuel cell CHP is still a research area with lots of work to be done be as long as e these devices appear on the market CHP CHP device coupled into heating system Heat Pump heat pumps move heat energy from a low temperature heat reservoir to a high temperature reservoir (e.g. the building) using a refrigerant cycle heat pumps can use the ground, water or even the air as the low temperature reservoir the cycle is driven by a compressor, which consumes electricity

Heat Pump heat pump per as long as mance is measured using a quantity known as the coefficient of per as long as mance (COP) COP = useful heat output ÷ energy consumed by compressor so as long as a COP of 4 (typical) 1kWh of heat will require 0.25 kWh of electricity the cycle can also be reversed to surplus heat from the house can be returned to the ground (e.g. summer cooling) heat pumps (arguably) have the greatest carbon saving potential of any low carbon technology if powered using renewable electricity heat pumps become zero carbon devices Heat Pump Zero Carbon Sources

Photovoltaics photovoltaic devices (PV) convert sunlight directly to electricity PV is based on semiconductor technology the most common material used is silicon the basic unit of a PV system is the cell: Photovoltaics individual cells are wired together in addition to encapsulated in a panel groups of PV panels installed on a building are called an “array” silicon PV is typically 12% efficient so an incident solar intensity of 600W/m2 falling on a 1m2 panel will generate 72W typical energy yields are ~100kWh/m2/yr conversion efficiency is dependent upon: the PV material used temperature solar intensity the load Photovoltaics PV power is intermittent – the amount being produced being determined by the solar intensity PV produced DC electricity – which can be used directly as long as battery charging connecting to AC loads requires the power from the panel is inverted PV is usually connected to the building’s electrical system via a power electronic interface this maximises the PV efficiency in addition to converts ac dc

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Photovoltaics Micro Wind micro wind power devices generate electricity from air flow around a building typical devices are horizontal axis machines – smaller versions of large scale machines typical device ratings are 1-5kW (@5-6 m/s) however the rated wind speed is rarely achieved in urban areas in practice (2-3 m/s) better suited to more isolated buildings or unobstructed air flow Micro Wind flow in urban areas is highly turbulent in addition to not ideal conditions as long as turbines wind speed in addition to direction can vary wildly in short distances proper siting is critical to achieve the best yield

Micro Wind the best site as long as a turbine can be predicted Other Zero Carbon solar thermal flat plate evacuated tube biomass/biogas boilers hydrogen fuel cell

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