Heating the AtmosphereWeather vs. ClimateBoth deal with atmospheric phenomenaWea
Kennedy, Liz, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Heating the AtmosphereWeather vs. ClimateBoth deal with atmospheric phenomenaWeather denotes the state of the atmosphere over short time scales – hours or daysClimate denotes these phenomena over long time scales -many years or centuriesSeasons denote an intermediate scale of months.What Do We MeasureELEMENTS of weather are different from elements of the Periodic Table:Air Temperature (measured in the shade)HumidityType/Amount of CloudinessType/Amount of PrecipitationAir PressureWind Speed in addition to Direction.
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Atmospheric Pressure The Weight of the Overlying MoleculesMeasured with a Barometerbaro- = pressure, -meter = measuring devicePressure of One Atmosphere = 1 barVariations in pressure at the surface of the Earth are measured in thous in addition to ths of a bar = millibarsAvg pressure @ sea level = 1.013 bars = 1013 mbVariations result from:Changes in altitudeChanges in the direction of net movement of air.Pressure Changes: AltitudeGravity holds air molecules close to EarthAir is concentrated nearest the EarthFewer air molecules at higher altitudesOnly light or energetic molecules can bounce to higher altitudesPressure can be a measure of the proportion of air:At 500 mb, half the air is above, half below500 mb occurs at about 5.6 km elevation.Composition of Dry AirAir is composed of molecules in gaseous as long as mDRY air (excluding H2O) contains:71% Nitrogen (mostly N2)21% Oxygen (O2, some O3)0.93% Argon gas (Noble Gas!)~0.035% CO2~0.035% other componentsSome of these constituents have important properties
Variable Components: DUSTDust is made of ( as long as example):Silicate materialsSalt crystalsDust plays some very important roles:Reflects sunlight back into spaceThere was a ½° DROP in average global temperature after the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo in 1992!Absorbs sunlightHelps to warm the atmosphereImportant nucleus as long as condensationEvery raindrop initially as long as ms around a particle.Variable Components: OzoneOzone (O3) can act as a POLLUTANT Smell of burnt air after a lightning strikeNot good as long as us to breathe but also acts as a PROTECTANTOzone is a strong absorber of ultraviolet (UV) radiation that can kill living organisms.The Ozone Hole ProblemThe ozone hole is a well-defined, large-scale destruction of the ozone layer over Antarctica that occurs each Antarctic spring.The word “hole” is a misnomer; the hole is really a significant reduction in ozone concentrations which results in the destruction of up to 70% of the ozone normally found over AntarcticaOzone is very reactive, easily losing its third oxygen atom in the presence of other highly reactive compounds called radicals, which contain chlorine, hydrogen, nitrogen, or bromine. Minute quantities of these radicals can cause large decreases in ozone because they are not consumed in the reaction. This is called a catalytic cycle.
Ozone Hole in addition to CFCsHumans have introduced Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) that interact with ozoneCFCs are INERT at the Earths surfaceMake great aerosol propellantsDrift up into the stratosphereCFCs are broken down by UV rays (like ozone)Products re-unite with that free oxygen atom so Ozone cannot re as long as mCFCs continue to deplete the supply of ozone Ozone Hole is SeasonalIn Antarctica, it grows in the Spring (October) in addition to shrinks in the Fall (March).Variable Components: CO2 + H2OGases are TRANSPARENT to Visible LightThey allow sunlight to pass through the atmosphereHow do we know this Hmm CO2 & H2O ABSORB IR Radiation from EarthThey help keep atmosphere warmAny increase in their abundance means warmer temperaturesThese are two important Greenhouse Gases.
Temperature A Specific DefinitionTemperature is often a relative measure:This porridge is too hot!This porridge is too cold!We will use an absolute measureThermometer measures T in CFreezing pt of Water = 32F = 0CBoiling pt of water = 212F = 100CTemperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy (thermal energy of motion) of the particles of a substance.Heating = Transfer of Thermal EnergySome Physics:Hot objects have molecules with lots of thermal energyThey try to give that energy to objects that are less as long as tunate (cold objects) or to empty spaceHot objects heat cool objectsWe dont say that a cold object is cooling a hot objectHot coffee warms the ice in your Iced MochaMore Physics
Heat Transfer: ConductionConduction works in SolidsMolecules that make a solid heat their neighborsEnergy spreads through matter that does not moveEx: Iron Bar in addition to Blowtorch.Heat Transfer: ConvectionConvection works in FluidsHeated molecules move away (up)Energy spreads when matter moves, carrying the energyEx: hot air rises.Heat Transfer: RadiationWorks in Vacuum (between gas molecules)Photons radiate through empty space from hot objectEnergy spreads to matter that can absorb photonsEx: Sun, CampfireThe closer you are to the heat source, the more photons you absorb.
Principles of Radiation IObjects emit (radiate) photons of many different energiesVisible Light is only a small portion of the SpectrumLonger wavelengths (Red end; IR, Microwaves, Radio) are lower energy photonsShorter wavelengths (Violet end; UV, X- in addition to Gamma rays) are higher energy photonsPrinciples of Radiation IIAll objects emit radiationOur eyes can only detect Visible LightHotter objects emit more energy per unit surface area than colder objectsEx: Charcoal Briquets – how do they do thatHotter objects emit higher energy (shorter wavelength) photons than colder objects.The Solar Spectrum
Principles of Radiation IIIGood Absorbers Make Good EmittersIf this werent true, what would happenSome materials absorb everything;Some materials are selective absorbersGases of H2O in addition to CO2 are examples:They DONT absorb Visible lightThey DO absorb IR radiation.Absorption SpectraSimple Question:If Hot Air rises, why is there snow in the mountains
Temperature Variations IIf we send a balloon up through the atmosphere to measure the temperature:Temperature DROPS through the TroposphereTemperature RISES through the StratosphereTemperature DROPS through the MesosphereTemperature RISES through the ThermosphereTemperature Variations IIRemember that simple questionIf Hot Air rises, why is there snow in the mountainsAnswer is not so simple!How is each layer heated It needs:Heat Source, which emits some Type of RadiationMaterial to absorb photons.
The TroposphereThis is also known as the Weather SphereTemperature drops with increasing altitudeRate of decrease with altitude is known as the Environmental Lapse Rate (ELR)Average (or Normal) ELR is 6.5°C/km (3.5°F/1000 ft), but varies widely with place, season, etc.Earth is the source of heat as long as the TroposphereDiscussed further in a momentTop is defined where the temperature stops dropping – called the Tropopause.The StratosphereTemperature rises with increasing altitudeThe SUN must be the heat source!OZONE absorbs UV rays in addition to becomes warmerHeat Rises, but what this really means is that Air that is warmer than its surroundings will riseAir doesnt rise much in Stratosphere – lack of vertical motion results in layering Top of Stratosphere is called the Stratopause.The MesosphereTemperature drops with increasing altitudeHeat source is hot material (atoms) escaping from the StratosphereOzone doesnt exist in this thin airSuns rays are extremely energetic, but there is nothing there to absorb the energy!Top of Mesosphere is the Mesopause.
Result: 3 BeltsBecause of Earths rapid rotation, the circulation in its atmosphere is complex, with three circulation cells in each hemisphere Planet Earth the Blue Planethttp://www.goes.noaa.gov/goesfull.html
Kennedy, Liz Host
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