Hepatobiliary & Genitourinary Spring 2013 RT 91 PATHOLOGY Hepatobiliary System

Hepatobiliary & Genitourinary Spring 2013 RT 91 PATHOLOGY  Hepatobiliary System www.phwiki.com

Hepatobiliary & Genitourinary Spring 2013 RT 91 PATHOLOGY Hepatobiliary System

McAllister, Matt, Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Hepatobiliary & Genitourinary Spring 2013 RT 91 PATHOLOGY Hepatobiliary System Comprised of: Liver Gallbladder Biliary tree Pancreas shares a portion of the biliary ductal system Biliary System

California State University, Chico US www.phwiki.com

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Biliary Tree Hepatobiliary Inflammatory Diseases

Cirrhosis CT is modality of choice Shrunken liver & ascites X-ray not useful US also used Demonstrates enlargement of spleen in addition to liver Biopsies done under US Cirrhosis Chronic liver condition liver parenchyma is destroyed & fibrous tissue is laid down Regenerative nodules are as long as med Results from alcoholism, drug abuse, autoimmune disorders, metabolic & genetic disease, hepatitis, heart problems, biliary obstruction Cholelithiasis Most commonly demonstrated with US Most calculi are radiolucent 20% are calcified enough to see on x-rays

Cholelithiasis Greater incidence in people who are: diabetic obese elderly have a diet high in fats sugar in addition to salt low in fiber Symptoms Bloating, nausea, RUQ pain Cholecystitis Acute inflammation of the gallbladder Sudden onset of pain, fever, nausea & vomiting Cholecystitis Stones may be visible on CT plain films US X-rays appear as radiopaque stones Have thickened walls surrounding gallbladder

Pancreatitis Primary Modalities: CT in addition to US Secondary: Endoscopy & MRI CT demonstrates an enlargement of the gl in addition to Pancreas has a shaggy irregular contour Pancreatitis Inflammation of pancreas Causes include: alcoholism obstruction of ampulla of vater by gallstone or tumor Can be chronic or acute Chronic causes irreversible change to the pancreatic function Neoplastic Diseases

Hemangioma Increased echogenicity may be demonstrated in US US can assess shape in addition to size of tumor NM using labeled blood cells that are attracted to the tumor CT & MRI with contrast demonstrates peripheral enhancement Hemangioma Most common tumor of the liver Well circumscribed CAN range from microscopic to 20 cm More common in women than men It is a benign neoplasm Metastatic Liver Disease US is most commonly used to screen CT & MRI all accurate diagnosis Liver biopsy under US provides definitive diagnosis

Metastatic Liver Disease Much more common than primary carcinoma of the liver It is a common site as long as metastases from primary sites Colon Pancreas Stomach Lung breast Pancreatic Cancer CT is the best method of imaging the pancreas Sonography is used to evaluate the biliary tree Pancreatic Cancer 5th leading cause of cancer death in the U.S. Prognosis is poor 2% survival rate Signs & symptoms are nonspecific Tumor is well advanced when diagnosis is made

Carcinoma of Renal Cells US reveals as a solid mass CT is the most accurate as long as diagnosis & regional spread 10% have calcifications MRI allows demonstration of renal anatomy & approaches accuracy of CT More definitive than CT if contrast enhancement cannot be used MISC pathologies of Hepatobiliary System Biliary Stenosis

McAllister, Matt Ben and Matt in the Morning - KNIX-FM Host www.phwiki.com

Genitourinary System Urinary System Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Enlargement can be demonstrated on an intravenous urographic exam as a filling defect at the base of the bladder CT in addition to MRI can also identify pathology

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Most common benign enlargement Can be diagnosed with rectal exam & PSA levels Generally affects men over 50 Symptoms Difficulty starting, stopping, & maintaining urine flow Can cause urinary obstruction & UTI’s Congenital Anomaly Renal Agenesis Congenital anomaly Absence of one kidney & opposite kidney is enlarged

Vesicoureteral Reflux Vesicoureteral Reflux

McAllister, Matt Host

McAllister, Matt is from United States and they belong to Ben and Matt in the Morning – KNIX-FM and they are from  Phoenix, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and McAllister, Matt deal with the subjects like Country Music; Entertainment

Journal Ratings by California State University, Chico

This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by California State University, Chico and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.