Higgs, more Higgs, less Higgs, or Higgsless John Ellis King’s College, London (

Higgs, more Higgs, less Higgs, or Higgsless John Ellis King’s College, London ( www.phwiki.com

Higgs, more Higgs, less Higgs, or Higgsless John Ellis King’s College, London (

Parra, Naomi, Operations Manager has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Higgs, more Higgs, less Higgs, or Higgsless John Ellis King’s College, London (& CERN) The ‘St in addition to ard Model’ of Particle Physics Proposed byAbdus Salam, Glashow in addition to Weinberg Open Questions beyond the St in addition to ard Model What is the origin of particle masses due to a Higgs boson Why so many flavours of matter particles What is the dark matter in the Universe Unification of fundamental as long as ces Quantum theory of gravity LHC LHC LHC LHC LHC

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Why do Things Weigh 0 Newton: Weight proportional to Mass Einstein: Energy related to Mass Neither explained origin of Mass Are masses due to Higgs boson (the physicists’ Holy Grail) The Seminal Papers The Englert-Brout-Higgs Mechanism Englert & Brout Guralnik, Hagen & Kibble

The Higgs Boson Higgs pointed out a massive scalar boson “ an essential feature of [this] type of theory is the prediction of incomplete multiplets of vector in addition to scalar bosons” Englert, Brout, Guralnik, Hagen & Kibble did not comment on its existence Discussed in detail by Higgs in 1966 paper Mysterious Higgs Potential Mass2 of Higgs ~ curvature of potential at minimum Vertical scale ~ 1060 × dark energy A Phenomenological Profile of the Higgs Boson Neutral currents (1973) Charm (1974) Heavy lepton (1975) Attention to search as long as W±, Z0 For us, the Big Issue: is there a Higgs boson Previously ~ 10 papers on Higgs bosons MH > 18 MeV First attempt at systematic survey

Higgs decay modes in addition to searches in 1975: A Phenomenological Profile of the Higgs Boson Higgs Boson placed on the Experimental Agenda Searches at LEP: (EG, Yellow report 76-18) e+e- Z + H (EGN 76, Ioffe & Khoze 76, Lee, Quigg & Thacker 77) Z H + +- (EG 76, Bjorken 1976) LEP: MH > 114.4 GeV The State of the Higgs in Mid-2011 High-energy search: Limit from LEP: mH > 114.4 GeV High-precision electroweak data: Sensitive to Higgs mass: mH = 96+30–24 GeV Combined upper limit: mH < 161 GeV, or 190 GeV including direct limit Exclusion from high-energy search at Tevatron: mH < 158 GeV or > 173 GeV

Latest Higgs Searches @ Tevatron Exclude (100,109); (156,177) GeV St in addition to ard Model prediction Experimental upper limit Higgs Hunting @ LHC: Status reported on Dec. 13th, 2011 Exclude 112.7 GeV to 115.5 GeV, 131 GeV to 237 GeV, 251 GeV to 453 GeV Exclude 127 to 600 GeV Has the Higgs Boson been Discovered Interesting hints around Mh = 125 GeV CMS sees broad enhancement ATLAS prefers 125 GeV

Has the Higgs Boson been Discovered Interesting hints around 125 GeV in both experiments – but could also be 119 GeV ATLAS Signals : 2.8 ZZ: 2.1 WW: 1.4 Combined: 3.6 CMS Signals Combined: 2.6

Has the Higgs Boson been Discovered Unofficial blogger’s combination NOT ENDORSED BY EXPERIMENTS but he was right last time ! Combining the In as long as mation from Previous Direct Searches in addition to Indirect Data mH = 125 ± 10 GeV Erler: arXiv:1201.0695 mH = 124.5 ± 0.8 GeV Assuming the St in addition to ard Model Precision Electroweak data Higgs coupling blows up!! Higgs potential collapses Higgs coupling less than in St in addition to ard Model viXra Blogger’s Combination of Dec.13th Data There must be New Physics Beyond the St in addition to ard Model

Heretical Interpretation of EW Data Do all the data tell the same story e.g., AL vs AH What most of us think Chanowitz Higgs + Higher-Order Operators Precision EW data suggest they are small: why Do not discard possibility of heavy Higgs Corridor to heavy Higgs Barbieri, Strumia Elementary Higgs or Composite Higgs field: <0H0> 0 Quantum loop problems Fermion-antifermion condensate Just like QCD, BCS superconductivity Top-antitop condensate needed mt > 200 GeV New technicolour as long as ce inconsistent with precision electroweak data Cut-off ~ 1 TeV with Supersymmetry Cutoff = 10 TeV

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Interpolating Models Combination of Higgs boson in addition to vector Two main parameters: m in addition to coupling g Equivalently ratio weak/strong scale: g / m Grojean, Giudice, Pomarol, Rattazzi What if the Higgs is not quite a Higgs Tree-level Higgs couplings ~ masses Coefficient ~ 1/v Couplings ~ dilaton of scale invariance Broken by Higgs mass term –2, anomalies Cannot remove 2 (Coleman-Weinberg) Anomalies give couplings to , gg Generalize to pseudo-dilaton of new (nearly) con as long as mal strongly-interacting sector Couplings ~ m/V (V > v), additions to anomalies A Phenomenological Profile of a Pseudo-Dilaton New strongly-interacting sector at scale ~ V Pseudo-dilaton only particle with mass V Universal suppression of couplings to St in addition to ard Model particles ~ v/V (gg) may be enhanced () may be suppressed Modified self-couplings Pseudo-baryons as dark matter Compilation of constraints Campbell, JE, Olive: arXiv:1111.4495 Updated with Dec. 11 constraints

Higgsless Models Four-dimensional versions: Strong WW scattering @ TeV, incompatible with precision data Break EW symmetry by boundary conditions in extra dimension: delay strong WW scattering to ~ 10 TeV Kaluza-Klein modes: mKK > 300 GeV compatibility with precision data Warped extra dimension + brane kinetic terms Lightest KK mode @ few 00 GeV, strong WW @ 6-7 TeV Theoretical Constraints on Higgs Mass Large Mh large self-coupling blow up at low-energy scale due to renormalization Small: renormalization due to t quark drives quartic coupling < 0 at some scale vacuum unstable Vacuum could be stabilized by supersymmetry Espinosa, JE, Giudice, Hoecker, Riotto, arXiv0906.0954 LHC 95% exclusion SUSY vs Data Electroweak precision observables Flavour physics observables g - 2 Higgs mass Dark matter LHC MasterCode: O.Buchmueller, JE et al. XENON100 Experiment Aprile et al: arXiv:1104.2549 Early Phenomenological Bounds Emission from stars: MH > 0.7 me (Sato & Sato, 1975) Neutron-electron scattering: MH > 0.7 MeV (Rafelski, Muller, Soff & Greiner; Watson & Sundaresan; Adler, Dashen & Treiman; 1974) Neutron-nucleus scattering: MH > 13 MeV (Barbieri & Ericson, 1975) Nuclear 0+ – 0+ transitions: MH > 18 MeV (Kohler, Watson & Becker, 1974) Supersymmetry Searches @ LHC Jets + missing energy (+ lepton(s)) Applicable to NUHM, CMSSM, VCMSSM, mSUGRA but need other strategies as long as other models

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