High Energy Physics C H Oh Text: D. Griffiths: Introduction to Elementary Partic

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High Energy Physics C H Oh Text: D. Griffiths: Introduction to Elementary Partic

Bass, Scott, Contributor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal High Energy Physics C H Oh Text: D. Griffiths: Introduction to Elementary Particles John Wily & Sons (1987) Reference: F. Halzen in addition to A.D. Martin: Quarks & Leptons John-Wiley & Sons (1984) D.H. Perkins: Introduction to High Energy Physics (4th Edition) Cambridge University Press (2000) Fayyazuddin & Riazuddin: A Modern Introduction to Particle Physics (2nd edition) World Scientific Publishing (2000) Physics Department General Reading: Brian Greene: The Elegant Universe (1999), QC794.6 Str. Gr M Veltman: Facts in addition to Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics (2003) Leo Lederman: The God Particle:If the Universe is the Answer, What is the question, Boston: Houghton Mifflin (1993), QC793.Bos.L Websites: Update of the Particle Listings available on the Web PDG Berkeley website: http://pdg.lbl.gov/ The Berkeley website gives access to MIRROR sites in: Brazil, CERN, Italy, Japan, Russia, in addition to the United Kingdom. Also see the Particle Adventure at: http://ParticleAdventure.org http://www-ed.fnal.gov/lml/Leon-life.html (Leo Lederman) http://www-ed.fnal.gov/trc/projects/index-all.html §1 Introduction §1.1 Introduction §1.2 Particles §1.3 Basic Interactions ( as long as ces) §1.4 Theoretical Framework §1.4.1 Quantum Field Theories §1.4.2 Feynman Diagram §1.5 Decays in addition to Conservation Laws §1.6 Unification Contents

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Contents §2 Relativistic Kinematics §2.1 Lorentz Trans as long as mations §2.2 4-Vectors in addition to Tensors §2.3 Lab in addition to CM Frames. Conserved Quantities in addition to Invariants §2.4 Elastic in addition to Inelastic Collisions §2.5 Examples §3 Symmetries §3.1 Symmetries, Groups, in addition to Conservation Laws §3.2 Review of Angular Momentum. Clebsch- Gordan Coefficients §3.3 Isospin in addition to Flavour Symmetries §3.4 Parity §3.5 Charge Conjugation §3.6 CP Violation §3.7 Time Reversal Contents §4 Decays in addition to Scattering §4.1 Lifetimes in addition to Cross Sections §4.2 The Fermi Golden Rule §4.2.1 Golden Rule as long as Decays §4.2.2 Golden Rule as long as Scattering Contents

§5 Quantum Electrodynamics §5.1 Relativistic Equations of Motion. The Dirac Equation §5.2 Solutions to The Dirac Equation §5.3 Bilinear Covariants §5.4 The Photon §5.5 The Feynman Rules as long as QED §5.6 Examples §5.7 Casimir’s Trick in addition to The Trace Theorems §5.8 Cross Sections §6 Introduction to Gauge Theories Contents 1.1 Introduction Elementary Particles = Basic constituents of matter Not Particles are pointlike To break matter into its smallest pieces, need high energy Elementary particle physics = high energy physics Present energy achieved 1 TeV 1000 GeV 1012 eV (Fermilab) LHC (2007) proton beams 7 TeV + 7 TeV = 14 TeV Theoretical discussion on the unification of basic as long as ces has reached the Planck energy scale Close to the energy scale at which the universe is created. 1.2 Particles Leptons: Particles do not participate in strong interaction. Electron pointlike up to 10-15 cm = 10-2 fm

Three generations of quarks each quark has a nonabelian charge, called colour (source of strong interaction); there are three different colours. Baryons in addition to Mesons are bound states of quarks. e.g. Theories: Strong interaction Quantum chromodynamics QCD em interaction Quantum electrodynamics QED Weak interaction Weinberg – Salam model (Flavour dynamics) Gravitation Quantum gravity () Einstein’s general relativity 1.3 Basic Interactions ( as long as ces)

1.4.1 Quantum field theories 1.4 Theoretical Framework 2. The diagram is symbolic, the lines do not represent particle trajectories. 1.4.2 Feynman diagram The 2nd diagram contributes less than the first diagram.

5. Each virtual particle (internal line) is represented by the “propagator” (a function describes the propagation of the virtual particle).The virtual particles are responsible as long as the description of as long as ce fields through which interacting particles affect on another. All em phenomena are ultimately reducible to following elementary process (primitive vertex) All em processes can be described by patching together two or more of the primitive vertices. Note: The primitive QED vertex by itself does not represent a possible physical process as it violates the conservation of energy. Some examples of electromagnetic interaction

Particle line running backward in time (as indicated by the arrow) is interpreted as the corresponding antiparticle running as long as ward. 4. Pair Annihilation (b) QCD Only quarks in addition to gluons involve basic vertices: Quark-gluon vertex More exactly Gluon vertices

Interaction between two proton Nucleons (proton or neutron) interact by exchange of mesons. e.g. First u quark of LH p interacts with d in addition to then propagates to the RH p to become the u of the RH p in addition to also interacts with the second u of the RH p. Similarly the first u of RH p interacts with the d in addition to goes to become a u of the LH p in addition to also interacts with the second u of the LH p. The coupling constant s decreases as interaction energy increases (short-range) known as asymptotic freedom s increases as interaction energy decreases (long range) known as infrared slavery. Leptons: primitive vertices connect members of the same generation Lepton number is separately conserved as long as each Lepton generation, that is, Le, L , L separately conserved. Charged vertex Neutral vertex e.g. ( c ) Weak Interaction

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Quarks Flavour not conserved in weak interaction Charged Vertex. Not observable quark confinement Two quarks u, d in neutron n not participating are called spectator quarks. But can be observed in Hadronic decays observed in Neutral vertex e.g.

Decays of quark by weak interaction can involve members of different generations e.g. a strange quark can decay into an u-quark The weak as long as ce not just couples members of the same generation but couples also members of different generations where Kobayashi –Maskawa matrix Vud = coupling of u to d Vus = coupling of u to s Summary

[Note: the relative weakness of the weak as long as ce is due to the large mass of W, Z; its intrinsic strength is greater than that of the em as long as ce.] From the present functional as long as m of the running coupling constants, s, w, in addition to e converge at around 1015 GeV. 1.6 Unification Our Universe according to Wilkison Microwave Anistropy Probe (WMAP) 2003 Age: 13.7 billion years Shape: Flat Age when first light appeared:200 Million years Contents: 4% ordinary matter, 23% dark matter, nature unknown; 73% dark energy, nature unknown Hubble constant (expansion rate):71km/sec/megaparsec To see a World in a Grain of S in addition to And a Heaven in A Wild Flower Hold Infinity in the palm of your h in addition to And Eternity in an hour W. Blake (1757-1827)

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