History of Computing in Medicine Beginnings Beginnings Eliza MUMPS
Kandas, Wayne, Host/Producer has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal History of Computing in Medicine Beginnings 1950s computers in bioengineering Early 1960s Medline Laboratory instrumentation computers (LINC) MUMPS developed at MGH GEMISCH (generalized medical in as long as mation system as long as community health at Duke) (Stead MD) 1975 8080 processor Altair 8800 1976 Apple Computers Hackers: Steven Levy Beginnings Initial application: automated patient questionnaire (Slack: 55) 1965 Patient centered computing Cybermedicine Center as long as Clinical Computing Dr. Slack maintained of Eliza that soliloquy, (with or without a computer) can be a valuable tool of mental health. He wrote: “Contrary to the common notion that soliloquy is a manifestation of mental illness, we believe that it is normal behavior–behavior that serves to help maintain emotional equilibrium.”
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Eliza Eliza (MIT 1960s) initially designed as a spoof vs. attempt to pass the Turing test Eliza Quack Eliza MUMPS MGH utility multi-programming system (Octo Barnett 1966) Thou shalt not declare variable types or file sizes. Thou shalt not KILL, except as long as globals in addition to variables. Thou shalt not covet they neighbor’s UCI (User Class Identification = computing area). Remember string h in addition to ling, as long as it shall make MUMPS special.
MUMPS Now known as M A programming language with extensive tools as long as the support of database management systems. MUMPS was originally used as long as medical records in addition to is now widely used where multiple users access the same databases simultaneously, e.g. banks, stock exchanges, travel agencies, hospitals. MUMPS Language plus data structure Designed by MDs in addition to engineers Designed as long as medical environment Low computing power data entry >>> computing Flexible string structure Inverted tree structure (sparse) Multi-user environment Interpreted More flexible, efficiency not necessary MUMPS code f p=2,3:2 s q=1 x “f f=3:2 q:ff>p!’q s q=p f” w:q p,$x8+18 prints a table of primes, including code to as long as mat it neatly into columns
Beginnings 1977 Medical In as long as matics defined Discipline dealing with the problems associated with in as long as mation, its acquisition, analysis in addition to dissemination in the health care delivery process 1978 DEC transitions from PDP to VAX 1980 IBM PC (MS-DOS) 1982 medical in as long as matics definition exp in addition to ed to include care, education in addition to research Beginnings 1983 Shortliffe medical in as long as matics covers more than just applications of computers to medicine 1986 Macintosh developed AAMC medical in as long as matics combines medical science with several disciplines in the in as long as mation in addition to computer sciences in addition to provides methodologies by which these can contribute to better patient care Artificial Intelligence in Medicine Clancey, Shortliffe (1984) Medical artificial intelligence is primarily concerned with the construction of AI programs that per as long as m diagnosis in addition to make therapy recommendations. Unlike medical applications based on other programming methods, such as purely statistical in addition to probabilistic methods, medical AI programs are based on symbolic models of disease entities in addition to their relationship to patient factors in addition to clinical manifestations
Early AIM Internist/QMR Designed at University of Pittsburgh Mycin, Oncocin Designed at Stan as long as d by Shortliffes group AIM Internist Designed to reproduce the behavior of a diagnostician
Current resources AMIA curriculum 2001 Health in as long as mation resources on the web IT Medical Literature Newsgroups/chat rooms/support Health news Future Compare American (vs. Japanese) industry in the late 1980s Barriers
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