Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Approach Approach (2) Implications
Sepos, Charles, Executive Producer/Host has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau ECON 205W Summer 2006 Prof. Cunningham Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Personal Background Most Important Writings: The Elements of Law (1640) De Cive (The Citizen, 1642) Leviathan (1651) Overall Objectives: To put moral in addition to political philosophy on a scientific basis Contribute to the stability, peace, in addition to welfare of mankind Approach Felt that earlier thinkers (excluding Machiavelli in addition to certain others) had failed because they attempted to base their theories of society on mankinds highest aspirations. Created a code of natural law as morally binding in addition to determining the purpose of society. Separated his notion of natural law from human perfection. Develops a psychology of human passions or interests.
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Approach (2) Believed he had uncovered the basis of human behavior in addition to human nature. Used these as assumptions to build his theory. Believes people have competing interests, in addition to this has implications. The State of Nature. Implications To prevent chaos, society, though political in addition to economic organization use the as long as ce in addition to coercion to hold society together. People ought to be willing to give up the same rights as they expect others to give up, in addition to out to be satisfied with just as much liberty with respect to others as others have with respect to them. Agreement to this by the members of society as long as ms the social contract. Social Contract The social contract is not between the citizens in addition to the ruling power. It is a contract citizens make with each other to accept the rule of central authority. The minority accepts the majority decision. A society so united as long as ms a single body, a commonwealth, a leviathan.
Social Contract (2) The ruler is the absolute authority. Parts of the social contract process. Validity of the contact. The contract is binding only if its purpose is fulfilledi.e., that the citizens are secure. The Sovereign in addition to Citizens Rights of the sovereign: En as long as cement of Law Legislative power Judicial power Sovereign is not subject to the laws. Citizens retain certain inalienable rights or retained rights Entitlement Theory Distributive justice. The guarantee of per as long as mance on contracts is the basis of all justice. Without respect as long as (private) property rights, everyone has a claim on everything, in addition to chaos reigns. Justice is not equal outcomes, but rather equality of process in addition to equality of opportunity.
Distributive Justice In the state of nature, people share a kind of equality. Inequality is a product of civil law. Regardless, people perceive themselves as equal, in addition to will enter into contracts willingly only under equal terms. Doctrines of inequality dont work. Hobbes Economic Contributions Focus on people as they are. Predecessor to Theory of Moral Sentiments (Smith) Entitlement theory of justice Basic of all justice is en as long as cement of property rights Social contract with retained rights Equality opportunity John Locke (1632-1704) Background Basic ideas: Rational agent model Coincidence of self-interest in addition to general interest Reacts more to Sir Robert Filmer than to Hobbes. Lockes message: All government is limited in its powers in addition to exists only by the consent of the governed. All people are born free.
Great Works Two Treatises on Government (1690) A Letter Concerning Toleration (1689) Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest in addition to Raising the Value of Money (1691) Two Treatises on Govt Begins with the questions: What is political power What is the appropriate end in addition to objective of civil government Answers: Political power is the right to make laws, en as long as cing them at penalty of death. Establishment of penalties related to regulating in addition to preserving property in addition to defending the commonwealth from as long as eign attack, all as long as the public good. The State of Nature Contrast with Hobbes view. The state of nature is a state of perfect freedom in addition to equality. The world was never without political or social structure. Political in addition to social structure arise naturally with humankind. People living together according to reason, without a common superior on earth with authority to judge between them, is properly the state of nature.
The State of War It is the use of as long as ce without right. In peace, there is no use of as long as ce without right. Allows that there are inconveniences in the state of nature in which people may need to be judges in their own case. It such situations, the state of nature may be indistinguishable from the state of war. Self-Preservation Everyone should pursue their own preservation, but is also obligated to pursue the preservation of the rest of humankind. What if these duties conflict Aggression against others if a violation of the law of nature. A course of conduct that tends toward self-preservation is in accord with nature, which is the law of nature. Locke on Property Natural distribution Theory of private property rights Begins with the assertion that every person owns themselves in addition to their labor. This is the foundation of all other property. Property acquired through just acquisition, earned through use of self in addition to labor. Means of limiting accumulation is only required if there is less than a superabundance. Only labor can create property. Transfer does not create property.
Locke on Money Money arises by mutual consent. It is a social institution that arises our of mutual trust. Money arose in addition to hastened the end of the common. Money encourages people to produce a surplus. Money is an ability to accumulate, leading to an inequality of wealth. People accept this because it is in the common interest. The Economic Problem Nature is powerless to provide as long as its own main intentionthe increase of mankind. Nature cannot extend its own limits. (Problem of scarcity) People can make increase possible, solving the economic problem. The continuation of the natural state is impossible. Growth is necessary. Political Power Must be limited. Majority rule. Separation of Powers. There is no freedom where there is no law.
Key Contributions to Economics Rational agent. In the long run, self-interest in addition to general interest coincide. People are basically good, but self-interested. Ideal structure as long as society is to preserve property rights in addition to let self-interest reign. Entitlement theory of distributive justice. Equal treatment in addition to process. Focus on growth. Political power should be limited, but freedom in addition to economic progress require law. Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) Concerned with the relationship of the state in addition to the individual. Believes that society is based upon some implicit contract. The contract delivers us from some prior state of nature. The contract implies that the ruler is the peoples agent, not their master. Life in addition to Work Rousseaus life. Confessions (1784) Emile (1762) The Social Contract (1762)
Rousseaus View of Human Nature Discourse on the Origin in addition to Foundation of the Inequality of Mankind Civilization brought inequality in addition to other evils. People have a sense of freedom, a faculty as long as self-improvement, a natural feeling of compassion in addition to self-love. The key social bond has been the development of private property. The first man who, having enclosed a piece of ground bethought himself of saying this is mine, in addition to found people simple enough to believe him, was the real founder of civil society. Human Nature (2) Private property is the source of all evil. Establishment of the institution of private property lead to the establishment of society, government, in addition to law. The only solution is to ab in addition to on private property. Rousseaus State of Nature Be as long as e people lived in societies, their activities were largely dominated by unreflective pursuits of their own individual welfare. The principle concern of people was self-preservation. There were no rights or moral relations to be respected. Cooperation was impossible. In this environment, it is impossible as long as human character to develop, in addition to people to rise above their base instincts.
Rousseaus Social Contract Man is born free, in addition to he is everywhere in chains. The contract liberates people from the rude state of nature. Socialistic view of the relationship between the individual in addition to society. The contract does not change people or their rights, but rather it offers guarantees. It guarantees individualism by prohibiting excessive individualism or self-interest. To Hobbes in addition to Locke, political institutions are a necessary evil; to Rousseau they are a blessing. Social Contract (2) People empower the state by their contract with the ruler. The citizens give the state ( in addition to society) complete control over themselves in addition to their (individual) possessions. People give up independent interest by giving up authority to the state to en as long as ce the collective interest of society. If the ruler or laws act other than in the interests of the whole of society, then the contract becomes void. Social Contract (3) Society, through the social contract, reshapes (changes) the individual. It is not necessary that choices be made by a vote. Majority rule is not necessary. Leaders can act in the general interest without consulting the citizenry.
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