Host-Parasite Coevolution Aims What is a parasite Parasite diversity Parasite-host coevolution

Host-Parasite Coevolution Aims What is a parasite Parasite diversity Parasite-host coevolution

Host-Parasite Coevolution Aims What is a parasite Parasite diversity Parasite-host coevolution

Marciocchi, Alan, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Host-Parasite Coevolution Rob Knell Aims What is a parasite Parasite diversity Parasite-host coevolution Parasites in addition to the evolution of sexual reproduction Parasites in control – manipulation of host behaviour Definitions of parasite Webster’s International Dictionary: ‘An organism living in or on another organism, obtaining from it part or all of its organic nutriment, commonly exhibiting some degree of adaptive structural modifications in addition to causing some real damage to its host’

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Hookworm: Ancylostoma duodenale -infects ~1billion people worldwide -feeds on blood in intestinal mucosa -penetrate from soil into skin -often without symptoms but can cause anaemia, in addition to mental retardation in children Ascaris lumbricoides Large Roundworm affects 1.5billion people worldwide -eggs ingested, worms hatch, migrate to lungs, then back to intestines worms from inhabitants of a single village (mainly children) Plasmodium falciparum – Malaria kills more people than any other infectious disease (1000-2000 per day) – protozoan (single-celled eukaryote, not a bacterium)

Aphids Venturia canescens parasitic wasps typically lay eggs into larvae of other species (here flour moth) which the parasitic larvae then gradually consume from inside Demodex folliculorum Not all animals that live in close association with a host are parasites eyelash mite – commensal (lives with about 1/3 of humans)

Bacteriophage Even bacteria have “parasites” Herpes simplex virus Rafflesia arnoldii Plants can parasitise other plants Diameter 1m, has no leaves, stems or even “roots” – the base is completely embedded in host plant. Flower smells of rotten flesh.

Host-parasite coevolution Parasitism is an extremely popular lifestyle The majority of organisms are either infected by parasites or at risk from infection Parasites, by definition, harm their hosts Hosts are there as long as e under selection pressure to avoid parasitism Parasites are under selection pressure to evade host defences Evolution of a parasite Influenza virus: Immunity is determined by two antigens, HA in addition to NA. “Antigenic drift” leads to new strains with different HA or NA antigens, that are able to infect people who are resistant to other strains This is why we see periodic epidemics of influenza when new strains emerge in addition to are strongly selected as long as . Phylogeny of influenza This is a phylogeny of influenza A virus over an extended period Note that there is continual replacement of one strain by another, in addition to that old strains go extinct

Host-parasite coevolution Parasites will be selected to exploit common host genotypes Hosts carrying rare resistance alleles will gain a selective advantage because they are not parasitised as much Rare host genotypes will become common The parasites will then be selected to exploit hosts carrying these resistance alleles. Thus the fitness of a genotype will depend on its frequency in the population Host evolution In the same way that parasites are constantly evolving to overcome host defences, Host organisms will be constantly evolving to resist parasitic infection This will lead to Frequency dependent selection, locking hosts in addition to parasites into endless coevolutionary cycles This is what is often called the “Red Queen Effect” The Red Queen “Now here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that” from Through the Looking Glass, by Lewis Carroll

Parasitism in addition to sex The evolution of sexual reproduction is a big puzzle in biology One possibility is that sexual reproduction benefits an organism by increasing the variability of the organism’s offspring This only gives a big fitness advantage when the environment changes very rapidly One aspect of the environment that does change fast enough is the parasites that an organism is exposed to. Evidence Very hard to test experimentally One noteworthy study by Curtis Lively in addition to coworkers Potomopyrgus antipodiarum – freshwater snail with both sexually in addition to asexually reproducing individuals The proportion of asexually reproducing individuals is related to the amount of parasitism a population experiences More parasitism leads to more sexually reproducing snails Parasites in addition to host behaviour Parasites don’t just face selection pressure to overcome host defences Transmission between hosts is crucial to a parasite’s fitness Some parasites have complex life-cycles, infecting more than one host be as long as e reaching adulthood In these cases, some parasites seem to change host behaviour to enhance their transmission rate

Dicrocoelium dendriticum the lancet liver fluke Dicrocoelium dendriticum Eggs hatch, parasite reproduces asexually Snails produce “slime balls” containing parasite larvae

Marciocchi, Alan Laughlin Entertainer Managing Editor

Marciocchi, Alan Managing Editor

Marciocchi, Alan is from United States and they belong to Laughlin Entertainer and they are from  Bullhead City, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Marciocchi, Alan deal with the subjects like Gaming and Casinos

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