How Does a Coronal Loop’s Geometry Relate to its Other Properties Outline What is a coronal loop THE BIG QUESTION: One Idea as long as the Heating Mechanism:

How Does a Coronal Loop’s Geometry Relate to its Other Properties Outline What is a coronal loop THE BIG QUESTION: One Idea as long as the Heating Mechanism: www.phwiki.com

How Does a Coronal Loop’s Geometry Relate to its Other Properties Outline What is a coronal loop THE BIG QUESTION: One Idea as long as the Heating Mechanism:

Davis, Joshua, Contributing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal How Does a Coronal Loop’s Geometry Relate to its Other Properties An Exploration of Non-Thermal Particle Effects on Simulated Loop Structures Chester Curme Dr. Henry (Trae) Winter Outline Introduction Coronal Heating Problem The HyLoop Suite in addition to non-thermal particles The relevance of loop geometry Tapering a loop The heating function Preliminary results Future work What is a coronal loop The sun’s magnetic field penetrates its surface in addition to loops around in its atmosphere. Plasma, bound to magnetic field lines, con as long as ms to these tubes of magnetic flux to produce beautiful structures like the one on the right. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/93/Traceimage.jpg

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THE BIG QUESTION: What heats the solar corona Temperature of the corona is in excess of 106 K. Temperature of the underlying photosphere is approximately 5800 K, several hundred times cooler than the corona. This is a mystery. One Idea as long as the Heating Mechanism: Buchlin, E., Aletti, V., Galtier, S., Velli, M. Einaudi, G., in addition to Vial, J.-C., “A simplified numerical model of coronal energy dissipation based on reduced MHD,” A&A 406, 1061-1070 (2003).

A nanoflare storm also produces “shrapnel” in the as long as m of a population of high-energy non-thermal particles (electrons). This shrapnel further heats the plasma. Nanoflare heating is a popular c in addition to idate as long as the heating of coronal loops. Hot (T > 2 MK) loops tend to be under-dense with respect to density at static equilibrium, whereas warm (T 1 MK) loops tend to be over-dense (Klimchuk 2006). This suggests that the plasma in coronal loops is not in static equilibrium, a phenomenon explained by the nanoflare theory. Most who simulate loops in nanoflare events employ 1D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, in addition to treat the NT electrons analytically (if at all). HOWEVER

Only Dr. Henry (Trae) Winter III models the evolution of NT particles in nanoflare heating events! Dr. Winter at the Harpoon Barbeque Championships, 2009 Code is called the “HyLoop” suite (“Hy” as long as hybrid) in addition to involves two interacting programs: SHrEC, a 1D MHD model which treats the thermal plasma PaTC (Particle Tracking Codes), which tracks the evolution of NT particle beams. The HyLoop Suite Loop coordinate, s In each volume cell, at each timestep, HyLoop solves the differential equations that govern the plasma in addition to NT particles, tracking the evolution of the loop. Why are NT particles important to model Non-thermal (NT) particles may leave an important observable signature: NT particles may deposit their energies in unexpected places as they travel along the loop. There exists a “mirroring as long as ce” proportional to the tapering of the magnetic field ( in addition to hence the loop itself, since plasma is contained by the field lines): Where is the KE of the particle transverse to This as long as ce causes high-energy particles to “bounce around” in a tapered loop. Note that both the radiative signatures in addition to behavior of NT particles vary strongly with loop geometry. SHrEC energy MHD equation:

Why are NT particles important to model Non-thermal (NT) particles may leave an important observable signature: NT particles may deposit their energies in unexpected places as they travel along the loop. There exists a “mirroring as long as ce” proportional to the tapering of the magnetic field ( in addition to hence the loop itself, since plasma is contained by the field lines): Where is the KE of the particle transverse to This as long as ce causes high-energy particles to “bounce around” in a tapered loop. Note that both the behavior of NT particles in addition to their radiative signatures vary strongly with loop geometry. SHrEC energy MHD equation: This brings us to our question: After taking into account the effects of NT particles, how is a coronal loop’s geometry related to its other properties Maximum temperature Apex density Average power at apex How geometry correlates (if at all) with these properties can shed light on the validity of the nanoflare theory, once compared with observations. We define a loop’s geometry in terms of the tapering ratio Construct a semi-circular loop of circular cross-section in addition to linearly taper loop radius by . Study of 43 soft X-ray loops by Yohkoh reported median of 1.30 (Klimchuk 1999).

The Heating Function First few minutes constitute a stabilization period: constant flux, uni as long as m heating. After stabilization: Each simulated flare has the same amount of total energy. Energy is divided into a series of nanoflare storms. At a pre-defined timestep, a storm of nanoflares occurs. Each nanoflare injects a beam of test particles into the loop. Nanoflares in each storm are of equal power in addition to distributed r in addition to omly along the loop coordinate s.

Volumetric Heating Rate Volumetric Heating Rate

Preliminary Results

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Mean r: 0.973

DC Heating Magnetic flux tubes extend up from photosphere in addition to widen as they pass through the chromosphere, transition region in addition to corona. The footpoints of these flux tubes are displaced via plasma convection in the photosphere, tangling the field in addition to building magnetic stress energy. The magnetic stress energy is somehow converted to heat in the corona. We concerned ourselves with DC Heating. Picture of tangled field lines goes here. Heating mechanisms that are impulsive can explain these observations. E.g. flux tubes are tangled; current sheets as long as m; reconnection events occur in addition to energy is released as a storm of nanoflares which accelerate coronal particles. We concerned ourselves with this theory. A nanoflare storm also produces “shrapnel” in the as long as m of a population of high-energy non-thermal particles (electrons). This shrapnel further heats the plasma.

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