How drug cartels operate U.S. Involvement Afghanistan Colombia Mexico Domestic C

How drug cartels operate U.S. Involvement Afghanistan Colombia Mexico Domestic C www.phwiki.com

How drug cartels operate U.S. Involvement Afghanistan Colombia Mexico Domestic C

Berry, Walter, Night Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal How drug cartels operate U.S. Involvement Afghanistan Colombia Mexico Domestic Consequences Drug cartels- organizations that participate in the production, transportation, in addition to distribution of illegal drugs.

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Methods of trafficking include tunnels, small aircraft, drug mules, in addition to boats Employ “en as long as cer gangs” known as sicarios, sometimes acting as paramilitary as long as ces to support larger cartels Police corruption in addition to government complicity are key parts of the cartels success Ongoing drug war is characterized by heavy bloodshed, with 35,286 officially recorded deaths to date (December 2006—January 2011) Primary ef as long as ts focused on border security along the U.S.-Mexico border, but no U.S. troops have ever been deployed in Mexico First example of this is Operation Intercept under President Nixon, which began in September 1969 in addition to was aimed at reducing marijuana trafficking from Mexico

Systemic influence of free trade: NAFTA Mexican government criticizes U.S. approach as failing to support reduced arms trafficking into Mexico, reduce the dem in addition to as long as illicit drugs in America in addition to stop the trafficking of drug earnings back into Mexico Afghanistan part of the Golden Crescent, consisting of countries that are involved in illicit opium production. Golden Crescent also includes Iran in addition to Pakistan. In recent years, opium production in Southwest Asia had increased as production in Southeast Asia has decreased. Afghanistan began producing opium after it was outlawed in Iran during the 1950’s.

Soviet Union in addition to Afghanistan established trading bonds. Saur Revolution Adopted many Soviet ideals in addition to sought to revolutionize Afghanistan Rejected by the people of Afghanistan Led to Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in addition to as long as eign attempts to drive them out. Fundamentalist group that sought to re as long as m the country through strict readings of the scripture. See-sawed on the legalization of opium production due to a variety of factors: Religion Global recognition Mass appeal to the people of Afghanistan

Fall of Taliban led to large increase in opium production Steady decline in prices from 2005-2009 Now increasing again in the present day. $64 per kg in 2009 to $169 per kg this year. 2010 opium production down by 48% due to large plant infestation that destroyed a majority of poppy plants Afghanistan has recently administered the following programs to combat opium production in the country: Counter-Narcotics Directorate Modern narcotics control laws. Ef as long as ts to establish a police as long as ce.

Psychoactive drugs produced by indigenous groups as long as religious, ceremonial, medical, cultural uses 1975- Operation Stopgap 1981- Extradition treaty between Colombia in addition to US Four major cartels Medellin Cali Norte del Valle North Coast 1998- Plan Colombia

1970’s to 1980’s Led by Pablo Escobar, among other notorious drug lords 1986- Medellin cartel is the largest cocaine smuggling organization in the world 1989- Declared war on Colombian government Ended in 1993 Total around 3,500 people killed by cartel Kidnapping ring Marijuana cocaine Rival to Medellin cartel Split into 5 groups: narco-trafficking, military, political, financial, legal 1991- U.S. government seizes 67 tons of cocaine, 75% originating from the Cali Cartel 1995- 6 out of 7 leaders arrested, but operations continued within prison Estimated revenue- $7 billion a year

Cocaine production reduced by 60% Capture of drug lords Violent response by drug cartels Colombia currently gives technical advice about controlling drug trafficking to 7 countries in Latin America in addition to 12 in Africa Level of drug related violence has decreased 50%

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Quick Overview History Origin / early drug lords – The divide up Miguel Ángel Félix Gallardo – “El Padrino” (The Godfather) – Guadalajara Cartel : based in Guadalajara, Mexico :drug trafficking money laundering extortion murder in addition to arms trafficking

Based in Tijuana, Baja Cali as long as nia The Tijuana cartel is present in at least 15 Mexican states with important areas of operation in Tijuana in addition to Ensenada in Baja Cali as long as nia. Criminal Activities

Boville, Belen. The Cocaine War in Context: Drugs in addition to Politics New York: Algora, 2004 pg. 79 BBC, “Mexico’s Drug War: Number of Dead Passes 30,000”, December 16 2010 accessed 1-30-11 Cook, Colleen W. “Mexico’s Drug Cartels” Congressional Research Service Report as long as Congress, October 16 2007 Loew, Morgan “Los Zetas” Draw Concern Of U.S. Government,” KOLD 13 News, Kold.com; 2005, accessed 1-30-11 Schlosser, Eric. “The Prison-Industrial Complex”, The Atlantic Monthly, December 1998. accessed 2-1-11 Toro, Maria Celia. Mexico’s “War” on Drugs: Causes in addition to Consequences Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers 1995 pg. 71Felbab-Brown, V in addition to a. Shooting Up. Washington DC: The Brookings Institution, 2010. 113-155. Print. http://www.unodc.org/documents/cropmonitoring/Afghanistan/Afg-opium-survey-2010-exsum-web.pdf http://www.unodc.org/documents/crop-monitoring/Afghanistan-Opium-Survey-2008.pdf http://www.usip.org/publications/establishing-rule-law-afghanistan-0 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opium-production-in-Afghanistan http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/press/releases/2010/September/sharp-drop-in-afghan-opium-production-says-unodc.html http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2010/09/afghan-opium.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/cron/ http://www.justice.gov/dea/pubs/history/1975-1980.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Illegal-drug-trade-in-Colombia http://neorepublica.com/ Chepesiuk, Ron. The Bullet or the Bribe: Taking down Colombia’s Cali Drug Cartel. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. Print. Maria Full of Grace. By Joshua Marston. Dir. Joshua Marston. Fine LineFeatures, 2004. http://www.pbs.org/wnet/wideangle/episodes/an-honest-citizen/map-colombia-cocaine- in addition to -cash/colombia/536/ Livingstone, Grace. Inside Colombia: Drugs, Democracy in addition to War. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers UP, 2004. Print. Beith, Malcolm (2010). The Last Narco. New York, New York: Grove Press. “The Border Monsters”. Time Magazine. 2001 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mexican-Drug-War www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf http://articles.cnn.com/2008-08-08/justice/pot.eradication-1-marijuana-plants-drug-cartels-pot-production/2-s=PM:CRIME http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.phpstoryId=126978142 http://exiledonline.com/mexican-drug-war-intel-report-over-22000-dead-police-detain-27-of-the-zetas-foot-soldiers-open-hunting-season-on-cops/ http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CHRG-111shrg56913/pdf/CHRG-111shrg56913.pdf http://blog.alltreatment.com/2011/interview-with-mexico-drug-war-expert-sylvia-longmire/ http://www.aviapress.com/viewonekit.htmICM-35221 http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/afghanistan/2185489/Taliban-makes-50m-from-Afghanistan-opium-trade.html

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