How Green is My Building Resource systems in buildings Resources & people move
Mcvey, Charlis, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal How Green is My Building Resource systems in buildings Resources & people move into buildings, do things in there, in addition to leave buildings People & animals Energy & light Food & water Furniture & stuff Clothing & fabrics Air & moisture Pollutants Chemicals & materials People & animals Waste heat Garbage & sewage Discarded stuff Emissions Toxic wastes Cooking, eating, drinking, sleeping, washing, watching, reading, talking, creating, destroying, playing, singing In conducting a green audit of a building, the following need to be considered Resources & materials in the building structure in addition to moving through the building Lifecycle costs of those materials (e.g., new, recycled, energy inputs) & activities Broader ecological impacts of acquiring those materials (e.g., types of wood, stone) Broader ecological impacts of processing, using, disposing of materials (e.g., energ, emissions, wastes, etc.)
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And we need to pay attention to the wild card in all of this: How people behave in in addition to interact with buildings In next weeks lab, you will be asked to conduct a resource audit of one of the PICA buildingsa relatively simple case A building can be understood as organized around an ecological system
To determine its greeness, we need to disaggregate its sub-systems & measure flows into in addition to out of the building We also need to study how external inputs impinge on its structure, its interior in addition to its occupants For example, does afternoon sunlight come through the windows unobstructed, thereby making rooms too warm as long as com as long as t What do the occupants do in response Draw shades or blinds Open windows Turn up the air conditioning We start with the building envelope Of what is it made Wood Stucco Siding What is the area of its external components Roof Windows Doors Walls What kinds of driving potentials impact on the envelope Sunlight Wind Shading Toxins Is there insulation in the walls in addition to attic What kind How old
We need to measure or estimate resource flows through the envelope The first thing to do is to locate the three meters- electricity, gas, water in addition to to measure usage over time. You may want to turn things on in addition to off. It is also useful to have a bucket in addition to watch to measure water flows from spigots in addition to faucets. Next, you need to estimate heat flows through the building envelope A common way to assess conduction, in particular, is to calculate the R-value of the buildings envelope. R-value is a measure of resistivity. R = inside-outside temp diff. x area x time heat loss Wood: 1 has R-value of 1.56; Stucco: 0.20/inch; Brick: 0.20/in. (Wood studs can act as conduits as long as heat transfer; metal is worse)
It is also important to try to measure solar gain in addition to air flows through the envelope We are in Zone 5, which is fairly temperate; recommended R-values are relatively low. We can calculate the annual heating need using the concept of degree days. This is 65ºF minus the outside temperature as long as heating degree days of the outside temperature minus 65ºF as long as cooling degree days The next step is to measure energy use in addition to heat gains from various internal components
Users & sources need to be identified in addition to usage estimated or calculatedthis includes appliances in addition to secondary components Lighting can also be a major energy user: there are specific design lighting st in addition to ards as long as different spaces Count the lightbulbs, determine their wattage, estimate their daily usage For energy use, all of these inputs need to be calculated in addition to aggregated.
Next, we turn to water inputs in addition to sewage outputsthese are roughly equal. Try to measure water use over a typical daytime hour, using the meter Measure water flows from spigots & faucets, using a bucket in addition to watch Observe occupant usage during a typical daytime hour Another important consideration is moisture in the building, which can result in unwanted condensation, mold in addition to mildew. Other pollutants include radon, chemicals, outgassing from plastics in addition to carpets, etc. Other inflows in addition to outflows include: Movement of foods in addition to liquids into the building in addition to garbage in addition to wastes out of the building Office in addition to other paper supplies Furniture in addition to office equipment Clothing, fabrics, wall coverings, blinds Ideally, we would estimate their resource impacts in addition to try to calculate life-cycle costs as long as the building, its components, in addition to the various flows through the building
LEED: Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green Building Rating System developed by the U.S. Green Building Council Allocates points as long as building design features (NOT operation Sustainable sites (14 points) Water efficiency (5 points) Energy & atmosphere (17 points) Indoor environmental quality (15 points) Innovation in addition to design process (5 points) Buildings are then certified according to total number of points Certified – 26-32 points Silver – 33-38 points Gold – 39-51 points Platinum – 52-69 points Improvements can be made to existing buildings Replace existing heating in addition to cooling systems with more efficient units Replace appliances with lower-energy models Install flow restrictors on faucets & spigots; install a graywater system as long as outside watering Install insulation in attic (first) in addition to walls (second), in addition to new windows in addition to frames (as appropriate) Install solar water heating or on-dem in addition to heater, as well as solar PVs to supply some level of electricity Add Trombe walls, clerestories in addition to light pipes The question of cost in addition to benefit remains, in addition to the declining cost of oil raises major economic questions
Mcvey, Charlis Managing Editor
Mcvey, Charlis is from United States and they belong to AZ Tourist News and they are from Tucson, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and Mcvey, Charlis deal with the subjects like Travel; Travel and Tourism Industry
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