Human Communication What is communication What is communication Five Aspects of Communication Human Communication
Roland, Patrick, Managing Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Human Communication What is communication What is unique about human communication Where did it come from How did it evolve Significance of human empathy, shared care, intentionality, collaboration in addition to co-operation How does culture effect communication To what extent do men in addition to women use language differently What is communication All social behavior is a as long as m of communication; But it can be inadvertent like age, sex, size, ethnicity, apparent strength, weakness, gender; Need to delimit communication in order to study it It must be goal-directed in addition to purposeful behavior. What is communication Any signal given out by one individual used by another either to predict the behavior of the first individual, or something else in the environment (Thelma Rowell); Signals function to permit interaction between fellow species members (con-specifics) thereby making reproduction in addition to survival possible
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Five Aspects of Communication Signal Meaning Function Development Evolution Human Communication is 100% verbal/symbolic, productive (new words in addition to meanings can be invented); is 100% non-verbal (involves multi-modal sensory system; touch (tactile) movement (kinesiology) use of space (proxemics) olfaction (smell) eye contact (visual) auditory The Cooperation Model Human beings cooperate with each other in a species-specific way that involves processes of shared intentionality. Two things are required as long as cooperation: Common ground or joint attentional frame Social motivations as long as helping in addition to sharing with others
Infant Pointing: Fundamentally Human Infants use their shared common ground with a pointing adult (not their own egocentric interests) to interpret both the adults referential intention in addition to his underlying motive in addition to social intention. For most infants, pointing emerges at around the first birthday, be as long as e language, so this indicates that the infrastructure of cooperative communication operates initially not in support of language but in the use of the pointing gesture. Features of human communication in addition to their roots: Tomasello: Human cooperative communication emerged first in evolution when using spontaneous gestures. Human cooperative communication is dependent on shared intentionality. Conventional (modern) communication is possible only when participants already possess Natural gestures in addition to a shared intentionality structure Skills of cultural learning in addition to imitation Ape-Human Differences Apes do not have the skills nor the motivations to as long as m joint goals in addition to joint attention with others. They do not collaborate in human-like ways. In studies, it was found that: Human infants underst in addition to joint activity Chimpanzees underst in addition to their own action from a first-person perspective in addition to that of the partner from a third-person perspective. Human infants spent far more time than apes looking back in addition to as long as th from object to adult, in addition to their looks to the face of the adult were almost twice as long as those of the apes. The infants look were sometimes accompanied by smiles; apes do not smile.
Where Do Signals Come From Intention movements (getting ready to run, fight, hit, play, groom, have sex, protect yourself etc; Physiological-by-products as in autonomic reactions such as pupil dilation, muscle dilation or constriction, heavy breathing, increased heart rate, blushing, fear, fight, ot flight The message is in . Unlearned responses to novel, unexpected stimuli Surprise/startle Pain Anger Grief Embarrassment Confusion/bewilderment
The message is determined by tone of voice not always what humans say, but how they say it (para-language) the overall context within which the signal or message is given nature of the history of the social relationships of the actors or participants; determined by the totality of verbal in addition to non-verbal cues The message is enhanced by Smell can a 4 billion dollar perfume industry be all wrong Men in addition to woman are affected by pheromones-our behavior is regulated in a hidden way I.e. menstrual synchrony, woman attracted to male axillary odors; Infants head turn preferentially toward their own mothers milk; Message is enhanced by Gestures (affirming, denying, exaggerating, welcoming, distancing, connecting, rejecting, nice, nasty); emblems such as O.K, crazy, victory, good luck, maybe, not-so-good; illustrations non-specific but somehow choreographed h in addition to in addition to head in addition to body motions in addition to movements underlying words in addition to emotions
The message is in the EYES as in detachment-attachment, interest-dis-interest, pleasure displeasure, dismissive-respectful TOUCH (Tactile stimulii) all kinds of touch including: intimate, personal, social, public who has the privilege of touch The message is in The use in addition to control of space reflects social status, who gives authority in addition to status; wealthy people retain high status they control the best space in addition to have more of it how close can a person be as long as what kinds of interactions; how does use of space reflect local cultural values in addition to beliefs Who gives space to others in addition to why
Biology of Human Vocalizations The 90 degree angle created by vertebral column in addition to head articulation i.e. with as long as amen magnum in center of skull; By design we have separate oral, pharyngeal in addition to nasal cavities (spaces) that can by manipulating by tongue in addition to lips be closed off from one another Other adaptations as long as human speech Short muscular tongue; Short jaw from front to back (brain case gets big space as mouth becomes smaller in addition to pulled under cranium; Reduced prognathism (of human jaw jutting as long as ward) Reduced anterior dentition no big projecting, conical shaped canines jutting from tooth row; Parabolic arch (not v-shapes like monkeys, or parallel in addition to U-shaped like apes; Neural mechanisms in addition to adaptations as long as speech breathing (volitional control) ; Language . Is it .the only reality we will ever know are we prisoners of language If you cannot label it, do you experience it Are pre-verbal infants unable to experience states they cannot describe Do you see a color you have no label as long as Do animals have language Or an underst in addition to ing or sense of language
What does language do In as long as ms Requests Shares Permits collaboration Permits helping in addition to cooperation through mind reading in addition to empathy; Emancipates h in addition to s as long as other tasks Exp in addition to s beyond visual communicative domain Permits individual-based communication Permits shared imagination (including lying) Language is A finite number of meaningless utterances, recombined into an almost infinite number of meaningful sentences in addition to phrases You Just Dont Underst in addition to By Deborah Tannen Women in addition to Men In Conversation (Quill Press 2001)
Language: A biocultural perspective of evolved male-female psycho-sexual proclivities conversational styles, modes in addition to tendencies are seen to act as a vehicle as long as men to achieve social well being in addition to reproductive success however defined conversational modes which distinguish men in addition to women are viewed as reflecting each of the sexes emotional needs in addition to tendencies which however biologically based are acted on by early cultural values, examples in addition to experiences which either inhibit or exaggerate those tendencies Assymetries Lead To Mis-interpretations Tannens basic premise: Men engage in a world perceived as a hierarchial social order in which a man is either one-up or one down; In this world conversations are negotiations in which people try to achieve in addition to maintain the upper h in addition to if they can- in addition to not be pushed around life is a struggle to preserve independence in addition to avoid failure Power in addition to accomplishment frame interactions Women Tannen uses herself as an example. She states I, on the other h in addition to , was approaching the world as many women do; as an individual in a network of connections. In this world, conversations are negotiations as long as closeness in which people try to seek in addition to give confirmation in addition to support, in addition to to reach consensus. They try to protect themselves from others attempts to push them away. Life, then, is a community, a struggle to preserve intimacy in addition to avoid isolation.
Men in addition to Women, boy in addition to girl Men value in addition to rely on rules, laws, hierarchy (larger principles) to govern their behavior Girls seek to attach-connect-become the same as the other they pay attention to feelings in addition to relationships (this frames their interactions with others) Boys seek to separate, distinguish, chose to dominate, display skill (one upsmanship) Men talk to get respect, women talk to connect. Men speak more in public, less so in intimate settings; Use of assent terms by women when women or men speak refers to vocal in addition to gestural support cues inviting a person to continue speaking-shows interest by one speaker in what another is saying: head bobbing -agreeing as a person speaks Use of uh-huh, uh-huh, (or) I see- yes, I see, uh-huh .yes Differential judgment made of same behavior Boasting avoided by women, acceptable amongst men less negative rating, more expectable When women use tag sentences in addition to disclaimers (like Well,I may not know as much about this as I should but } women are judged less intelligent in addition to less knowledgeable than are men using same expressions (Patricia Bradley)
Sex roles in addition to language Men do not ask as long as in as long as mation, women do Why Relates to mens constant negotiation as long as status Self-reliance is a male value And the expectation that men who ask are less in control, less skilled, knowledgeable-(of lower status) as regard being a male in addition to being in the company of a woman-who a man sees as being dependent on his knowledge Vocal Communication vs Gestural Communication In vocal communication, there is basically no monitoring. Gestural communication takes place in the visual channel, spatially directed toward a single individual, which requires the communicator to check that the recipient is visually attending. Multiple Functions of Human Communication: Shared Intentionality in addition to Cooperation To affirm social role, status, position, authority, identity in addition to as long as humans affirming a way of life through ritual public in addition to private ceremony, public institutions, by clothing etc etc; creates group identity, cohesion, solidarity; allows as long as interactional predictability, organization, successful reproduction in-group, out-group demarcations Most importantly: To in as long as m, to share, to request, to collaborate, to help!
Roland, Patrick Managing Editor
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