Human Vestigial Organs Vestige Vestigial Organs
Bowen-Harris, Eva, Executive Producer – Sonoran Living has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Summer 2006 Workshop in Biology in addition to Multimedia as long as High School Teachers Human Vestigial Organs By Donna Canuel-Browne Vestige 1 A visible trace, evidence, or sign of something that once existed but exists or appears no more. 2 Biology. A rudimentary or degenerate, usually nonfunctioning, structure that is the remnant of an organ or part that was fully developed or functioning in a preceding generation or an earlier stage of development. From dictionary.com
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Vestigial Organs A vestgial organ is an organ whose original function has been lost during evolution. From reference.com Examples of Vestigial Organs Appendix Coccyx Wisdom teeth Plica semilunaris Goose bumps Plantaris muscle External ear muscles Image courtesy of BIODODAC website http://biodidac.bio.uottowa.ca In 1893 an anatomist named Robert Wiedersheim composed a list of 86 vestigial organs including the following Adenoids Appendix Body hair Coccyx Ear muscles as long as wiggling Lachrymal gl in addition to s Nictitating membrane of eye Nipples on males Nodes on ears Parathyroid Pineal gl in addition to Pituitary gl in addition to Plantaris Muscle Thymus Toes bones III, IV, V Tonsils Valves in veins Wisdom teeth From wikipedia.com
Adenoids in addition to Tonsils -Important immune system function during the first year of life. Lacrimal gl in addition to s-produce tears which moisten in addition to cleanse the eyes. Parathyroid-maintains calcium levels Pineal gl in addition to -produces melatonin in addition to regulates daily rhythms Pituitary gl in addition to -The pituitary gl in addition to helps control: growth, Blood pressure, aspects of pregnancy in addition to childbirth, breast milk production, sex organ functions in addition to thyroid gl in addition to function.from wikipedia Thymus-Important as long as development of white blood cells. Toes bones III, IV, V-important in locomotion in addition to balance. Valves in veins-Assist blood return against gravity to the heart. He included some very useful organs, that are NOT vestigial organs The Appendix Controversy Many scientists believe that the appendix is a vestige of an organ found in mammals that consume large amounts of cellulose, a major component of grass. It is believed that We no longer use this organ because our diets have changed. From http://www org/faqs/vestiges/appendix.html.talkorigins Loren G. Martin, professor of physiology at Oklahoma State University, believes that early in development the appendix serves an important function of the immune system. He believes that the appendix teaches the immune system to distinguish dangerous pathogens from harmless food particles. Science Magazine “Its major importance would appear to be financial support of the surgical profession.” Alfred Sherwood Romer in addition to Thomas S. Parsons The Vertebrate Body (1986), p. 389. “The appendix n, of the colon n m, is a part of the caecum in addition to is capable of contracting in addition to dilating so that excessive wind does not rupture the caecum.” Leonardo da Vinci FB 14v (1504-1506). from O’Mally in addition to Saunders 1952, Leonardo da Vinci on the human body, p. 185. THE APPENDIX Image courtesy of BIODODAC website http://biodidac.bio.uottowa.ca
The Coccyx Former function was to support the tail in addition to the nerves associated with the tail. Formed from 4 fused coccyx. Currently used as a point of muscle attachment as long as the gluteus maximus. Has a shock absorber function Image courtesy of BIODODAC website http://biodidac.bio.uottowa.ca Wisdom Teeth Called wisdom teeth because they erupt at ages 17-21, an age when a person is wiser than they were when earlier teeth erupted! Most people have 4 Wisdom teeth but the range is usually between 0 in addition to 4. Often they are impacted (lodged in bone or soft tissue) in addition to unable to erupt. Several theories exist on why wisdom teeth have such limited utility We eat a more refined diet with less use as long as extra molars Our teeth are less likely to be lost to decay, making replacements unnecessary. Man has evolved a smaller jaw. From https://www.drbunn.com/3rds.htm in addition to Wikipedia.com Image courtesy of BIODODAC website http://biodidac.bio.uottowa.ca Plica semilunaris A remnant of the third eyelid or nictitating membrane. In humans it still functions to make sleepies the crusty waste ejected from the eye. From http://everything2.com/index.plnode=Plica%20semilunaris Image courtesy of BIODODAC website http://biodidac.bio.uottowa.ca
Goose bumps Goose bumps are a vestigial reflex. In furry mammals, goose bumps allowed the fur to st in addition to on end, making the animal appear larger to enemies. Goosebumps still serve a function in warming humans, as many thous in addition to s of tiny muscles contract creating heat. From www.beakman.com From wikipedia.com Plantaris Longus Plantaris longus functions weakly to allow us to st in addition to on tiptoes in addition to flex the knee The tendon is often used to replace a damaged tendon with no ill effect. In the primates the muscle was used as long as grasping trees with the feet. About 10% of people dont even have one From www.answers.com/topic/plantaris-muscle External Ear Muscles Humans have 3 small muscles on the outside of the ear. Most people cannot control these muscles, but some of us can still wiggle our ears Primates use these muscles to orient their ears toward a sound. From www.txtwriter.com/backgrounders/Evolution/EVpage12.html Image courtesy of BIODODAC website http://biodidac.bio.uottowa.ca
The Myth of Male Nipples Male Nipples are not a vestigial structure because the NEVER had a function. Nipples in both sexes as long as m early in pregnancy. Testosterone which produces maleness is not present until 14 weeks, after the nipples have already developed. http://amos.indiana.edu/library/scripts/nipples.html We must, however, acknowledge, as it seems to me, that man with all his noble qualities still bears in his bodily frame that indelible stamp of his lowly origin. CHARLES DARWIN, Descent of Man Title 38 pt to 32 pt This is where your text goes. It can be in bullets. Or you can do one long paragraph. The text size is set at 24 point, but can be resized if needed down to 14 point. Last bullet point. Wait, you can fit one more. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2006 President in addition to Fellows of Harvard College.
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