Hypercar What is a Hypercar Drivesystems Six Main Sources of Energy Loss in a Conventional Car: Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses

Hypercar What is a Hypercar Drivesystems Six Main Sources of Energy Loss in a Conventional Car: Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses www.phwiki.com

Hypercar What is a Hypercar Drivesystems Six Main Sources of Energy Loss in a Conventional Car: Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses

LaValley, Janet, Features Editor has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal Hypercar Pollution Prevention Michelle Bates What is a Hypercar Ultralight, Low-Drag, Hybrid-Electric Vehicle (HEV) 2 Sources of energy: Fuel cells, gas turbines, diesels, lean burn gasoline engines Flywheels, batteries, ultracapacitors 2 Drive trains Internal Combustion Engine- gas or alt. fuels Battery driven electric Drivesystems Conventional Internal combustion engine coupled to wheels through the transmission, driveshaft, etc. Hybrid-Electric Engine (or other power source) generates electricity from fuel, which then powers electric motors that turn the wheels

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Six Main Sources of Energy Loss in a Conventional Car: Hypercar Strategies to Reduce Energy Losses Ultralight 1994 Average U.S. Passenger car 1439 kg 2000-2005 Hypercar (4-5 seat) 521 kg Low Aerodynamic Drag Hybrid-Electric Drivesystem Efficient Accessories Ultralight Composites Embed strong rein as long as cing fibers in a supporting “matrix” of polymer Advanced Composites Long or continuous rein as long as cing fibers such as carbon or aramid (kevlar) in addition to glass

Advanced Composite Materials Advantages 50-65% reduction in weight Crashworthy Design Flexibility Durability Manufacturing Disadvantages $ GM’s 1991 Ultralite Concept Car Mass Decompounding

Low-Drag Aerodynamic Design Smooth underbody Low-angle windshields Tapered rear end Minimized body seams Aerodynamically designed air intakes, suspension, in addition to wheel wells Result: 40-50% decrease in drag Rolling Resistance 1/3 engine output lost Solution lightweight car tire improvements improved wheel bearing in addition to brake design Reduction in rolling resistance by 50-80% Hybrid-Electric Drive Series Engine with generator to supply electricity as long as battery pack in addition to electric motor No mechanical connection Power transferred electrically to wheel motor Parallel Direct mechanical connection between hybrid power unit in addition to wheels Electric motor drives the wheels Example

Hybrid-Electric Drive Series Parallel Hybrid-Electric Drive Generate electricity from the fuel, powers wheel motors Electric motors can recover part of the braking energy Wheel Motor Hybrid-Electric Drive Large decrease in engine size reduces weight, cost, fuel consumption Drive system efficiency doubled

Efficient Accessories Avoid heat buildup by using: Insulation, special heat-reflecting glass, solar-powered vent fans Innovative cooling in addition to dehumidification systems Improved headlights in addition to taillights More efficient electronics in addition to interior lighting systems Hypercar Whole Systems Approach Optimizing parts individually results in inefficiency overall Hypercar is cost effective when the entire system is designed as long as efficiency

Hypercar Safety Advanced composites Smaller propulsion system room at both ends of the car as long as materials dedicated to crash energy management Front in addition to side airbags, harnesses with pretensioners in addition to stress-limiters, padding, active headrests Pollution Prevention Hypercars would go roughly 2-4 times farther on a unit of fuel decreased overall carbon dioxide emissions lower emissions per vehicle mile traveled Alternative fuels Fuel Efficiency

Life Cycle Assessment Advanced Composites are durable won’t rust, dent or chip Total weight is much less, so there is less pure waste produced Current Status Hypercars do not currently exist Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) do exist Chrysler, Ford in addition to GM Year 2000 prototype HEVs Year 2003 release HEVs on the U.S. market Department of Energy HEV Propulsion Program Funds 50% of development costs Toyota’s Hybrid-Electric Prius Sedan Japanese market as long as one year Not ultralight (weighs 330 lbs. more) 66 miles per gallon Emissions reduced to 1/10th the Japanese legal requirement U.S. market year 2000

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Future Projections Zero-Emission Vehicles (ZEVs) One tenth of new cars sold in five U.S. states by 2004 Half of all vehicles Hypercars by 2020 Overall fuel consumption 25 percent less than today’s level Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars Battery Electric Run on electricity stored in onboard batteries Gasoline contains 100 times more energy per pound than batteries Several thous in addition to pounds of batteries (mass compounding) Range less than 150 miles

Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars Battery-Electric Batteries must be replaced every few years Batteries cost $2000-$15,000 each Batteries not recyclable Emission shifting GM’s EV1 Battery Electric Cars vs. Hybrid-Electric Cars Hybrid-Electric Cars Wheels powered by electric motor or motors, convert fuel into energy as they go Alternative fuel sources (Ex: renewable fuel cells) Decrease carbon dioxide emissions Increased engine in addition to drive systems efficiency Mass decompounding Economic Impacts: The Winners Makers of power electronics, microelectronics, advanced electric motors in addition to small engines, alternative power plants in addition to storage devices, in addition to software Composite materials, structures, in addition to tooling in addition to manufacturing equipment suppliers Providers of polymers, fibers, coatings, in addition to adhesives as long as the composites industry Aerospace firms

Economic Impacts: Losers Iron in addition to steel industries (a Hypercar has 92% less iron in addition to steel) Heavy machine tools Oil as long as motor fuel Automotive fluids in addition to lubricants For More In as long as mation The Hypercar Center www.hypercarcenter.org Hybrid Electric Vehicle Program www.hev.doe.gov Rocky Mountain Institute www.rmi.org Toyota Prius www.toyota.com

LaValley, Janet Features Editor

LaValley, Janet is from United States and they belong to Bisbee Daily Review and they are from  Bisbee, United States got related to this Particular Journal. and LaValley, Janet deal with the subjects like Features/Lifestyle

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