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I. What is Evolution? I. What is Evolution? Agents of Evolutionary Change
Carroll College Helena, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Agents of Evolutionary Change The Five Forces of Evolution in addition to How We Measure Them I. What is Evolution? First, remember that? Evolution is a two-stage process: Production in addition to redistribution of variation (inherited difference between individuals). Natural selection (whereby genetic differences in some individuals lead so that their higher reproductive success. I. What is Evolution? A change in the frequency of alleles in a population from one generation so that the next. An allele frequency is the percentage of all the alleles at a specific locus accounted in consideration of by one specific allele. For evolution so that occur, a new allele must spread through the population in addition to change in frequency. Still, the frequencies of all alleles ill add so that 1.0 (100 %) Evolution is driven by five known factors or agents.
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II. Agents of Evolutionary Change Mutation Gene Flow Nonrandom (Assortative) Mating Genetic Drift Selection II A. Mutation Mutation is a molecular alteration in genetic material: For a mutation so that have evolutionary significance it must occur in a gamete (sex cell). Such mutations will be carried on one of the individual’s chromosomes. During meiosis the chromosome carrying the mutation will assort giving a 50 percent chance of passing the allele so that an offspring. II A. Mutation, continued Mutation is the only way new variations can be produced. Since mutation occurs so infrequently at any particular locus, it would rarely have an effect on allele frequencies. Most mutations are “hidden” as recessive alleles. example: About 1 in in 12,000 babies carry the homozygous form of the allele in consideration of PKU (phenylketonuria). Without early detection in addition to treatment, this disorder will lead so that mental retardation.
II B. Gene Flow Gene flow is the exchange of alleles between populations. Also called migration. Long-term patterns of mate selection can cause significant changes in gene frequency. e.g. African Americans are largely of West African descent, but there has been considerable influx of alleles from non-African populations. II C. Assortative Mating Purposeful selection of mates based on the presence or absence of certain traits in potential mating partners. Also called non-random mating or sexual selection Undesirable traits will diminish over time as the organisms having those traits are less reproductively successful. One example of this in history was choice of antler rack size among Red Deer in the British isles. II D. Genetic Drift Random fluctuation in allele frequencies Can change in either direction. Associated alongside small populations Two variants. Founder Effect occurs when a small migrant band of “founders” colonizes a new area away from the parent group. Bottleneck Effect occurs when circumstances dictate that only a select number of individuals will survive so that reproduce.
Whither research integrity? Plagiarism, self-plagiarism in addition to coercive citation in an age of research assessment Structure Introduction Introduction Aims Background Background Plagiarism Self-plagiarism Self-plagiarism Analysis Analysis Conclusions Conclusions Conclusions References
Tristan de Cunha: Example of Founder Effect An Island in the South Atlantic was settled in early 1800s by one Scottish family of about 15 people. Population was added so that by shipwrecks in addition to births The 1987 population numbered 296 people alongside 7 family names, in addition to mtDNA studies have shown that they are descended from five female founders. The population has a high frequency of a hereditary eye disorder (retinitis pigmentosa). Four islanders have the disease in addition to nine are carriers at last count. Northern Elephant Seal: Example of Bottleneck Hunted down so that 20 individuals in 1890?s Population has recovered so that over 30,000 No genetic diversity at 20 loci. Concern about resistance so that pathogens II E. Natural Selection Differential reproductive success in a population due so that heritable variants among the population Malaria is found in areas where the sickle-cell allele is found in addition to it was discovered that heterozygous carriers of sickle-cell anemia are more resistant so that malarial infection than the homozygous “normals”. Natural selection did not cause the sickle cell allele so that appear; it merely acted so that increase its frequency in some populations.
III. Evolution in Population Genetics Some things so that remember: Allele frequencies are the proportions of alleles in a population. Each population has a particular complement of genes, a level of variability, called its gene pool. A change in variability in the gene or allele pool across generations is thus microevolution As a species changes over time, macroevolution (speciation) may occur Physical anthropologists a formula called the Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium so that determine whether allele frequencies in an isolated human population are changing. The Hardy Weinberg is good in consideration of two things: Estimating allele frequencies in consideration of a population in which actual counts are impractical Acting as a model against which so that test assumptions about the evolutionary status of a known population. The formula is: p2+2pq+q2=1.0 III. Evolution in Population Genetics For the Hardy Weinberg so that be true? NONE OF THE FOLLOWING CAN OCCUR: New variation (mutation). Redistributed variation through gene flow Redistributed variation through genetic drift Select “advantageous” allele combinations that promote reproductive success (natural selection) Assortative mating III. Evolution in Population Genetics
I. Types of Human Variation Humans vary in their: Physiology Body proportions Skin color I A. Physiologic Variation Lactose Tolerance Ability so that produce enzyme lactase throughout life Found in populations alongside a pastoral heritage Vasoconstriction in addition to Vasodilation Ability so that control restriction of blood vessels Found in populations in extreme environments I B. Body Proportions Bergmann?s Rule Climate controls body mass so that surface ratio Allens? Rule Climate controls limb lengths
I C. Skin Color Factors affecting skin color Sunlight Vitamin D needs, cancer, in addition to folate Nutrition Excess dietary pigment can change color Environment Short term responses (I.e. tanning) Genes What your parents pre-determined about you II. Historical Views of Human Variation Biological determinism cultural variations are inherited in the same manner as biological variations Eugenics Galton?s “race improvement” through forced sterilization & encouraged reproduction Mono in addition to Polygenism One or many origins in consideration of humanity (A&E?) III. The Concept of Race All Modern Humans Belong so that the Same polytypic species, Homo sapiens. A polytypic species consists of local populations that differ from one another in the expression of one or more traits.
III. The Concept of Race, cont. Variation (race) is geographic in nature Variation can be plotted on clines IV. The Traditional Race Concept Since the 1600s race has been used so that refer so that various culturally defined groups. While race is usually used as a biological term, it is also one alongside enormous social significance. In the 1950’s the use of the term “race” was replaced alongside the term “ethnicity ” V. Race in addition to Intelligence Both genetic in addition to environmental factors contribute so that intelligence. Many psychologists say that IQ scores measure life experience. Innate differences in abilities reflect individual variation within populations, not inherent differences between groups. There is no convincing evidence that populations vary alongside regard so that cognitive abilities.
VI. Adaptive Significance of Variation Human variation is the result of past in addition to present adaptations so that environmental conditions. Physiological response so that environmental change is under genetic control in addition to environmental influence in addition to operates at two levels: Long-term (i.e. genetic) evolutionary changes characterize all individuals within a population or species. Short-term physiological response so that environmental change is called acclimatization; such physiological change is temporary.
Lipschitz, David Host/ General Manager
Lipschitz, David is from United States and they belong to Host/ General Manager and work for Koffee Klatch – KINO-AM in the AZ state United States got related to this Particular Article.
Journal Ratings by Carroll College Helena
This Particular Journal got reviewed and rated by VI. Adaptive Significance of Variation Human variation is the result of past in addition to present adaptations so that environmental conditions. Physiological response so that environmental change is under genetic control in addition to environmental influence in addition to operates at two levels: Long-term (i.e. genetic) evolutionary changes characterize all individuals within a population or species. Short-term physiological response so that environmental change is called acclimatization; such physiological change is temporary. and short form of this particular Institution is US and gave this Journal an Excellent Rating.