ICM Introduction Extracted from “Final Report: Integrating Systems in addition to Software

ICM Introduction Extracted from “Final Report: Integrating Systems in addition to Software www.phwiki.com

ICM Introduction Extracted from “Final Report: Integrating Systems in addition to Software

Nelson, Gary, Mesa City Hall Reporter has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal ICM Introduction Extracted from “Final Report: Integrating Systems in addition to Software Engineering (IS&SE) Study” Barry Boehm in addition to Jo Ann Lane University of Southern Cali as long as nia Center as long as Systems in addition to Software Engineering Arthur Pyster Stevens Institute of Technology December 31, 2007 Outline DoD systems in addition to software engineering trends in addition to challenges State of systems in addition to software engineering (S&SE) integration Sources of gaps in addition to challenges Evaluation of current processes in addition to st in addition to ards Incremental Commitment Model (ICM) evaluation ICM origin, principles, in addition to organization ICM evaluation Conclusions in addition to recommendations References in addition to acronyms ICM Practices in addition to Assessment From the spiral model to the ICM Principles in addition to example Risk-driven incremental definition: ICM Stage I Buying in as long as mation to reduce risk Risk-driven incremental development: ICM Stage II Achieving both rapid change in addition to high assurance Multiple views of the ICM Viewpoints in addition to examples ICM Assessment

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From the Spiral Model to the ICM Need as long as intermediate milestones Anchor Point Milestones (1996) Avoid stakeholder success model clashes WinWin Spiral Model (1998) Avoid model misinterpretations Essentials in addition to variants (2000-2005) Clarify usage in DoD Instruction 5000.2 Initial phased version (2005) Explain system of systems spiral usage to GAO Underlying spiral principles (2006) Provide framework as long as human-systems integration National Research Council report (2007) Process Model Principles Commitment in addition to accountability Success-critical stakeholder satisficing Incremental growth of system definition in addition to stakeholder commitment 4, 5. Concurrent, iterative system definition in addition to development cycles Cycles can be viewed as sequential concurrently-per as long as med phases or spiral growth of system definition 6. Risk-based activity levels in addition to anchor point commitment milestones Incremental Commitment in Gambling Total Commitment: Roulette Put your chips on a number E.g., a value of a key per as long as mance parameter Wait in addition to see if you win or lose Incremental Commitment: Poker, Blackjack Put some chips in See your cards, some of others’ cards Decide whether, how much to commit to proceed

Scalable remotely controlled operations Total vs. Incremental Commitment – 4:1 RPV Total Commitment Agent technology demo in addition to PR: Can do 4:1 as long as $1B Winning bidder: $800M; PDR in 120 days; 4:1 capability in 40 months PDR: many outst in addition to ing risks, undefined interfaces $800M, 40 months: “halfway” through integration in addition to test 1:1 IOC after $3B, 80 months Incremental Commitment [number of competing teams] $25M, 6 mo. to VCR [4]: may beat 1:2 with agent technology, but not 4:1 $75M, 8 mo. to ACR [3]: agent technology may do 1:1; some risks $225M, 10 mo. to DCR [2]: validated architecture, high-risk elements $675M, 18 mo. to IOC [1]: viable 1:1 capability 1:1 IOC after $1B, 42 months The Cone of Uncertainty: Usual result of total commitment ^ Inadequate PDR Better to buy in as long as mation to reduce risk

ICM Principles in addition to Approach From the spiral model to the ICM Principles in addition to example Risk-driven incremental definition: ICM Stage I Buying in as long as mation to reduce risk Risk-driven incremental development: ICM Stage II Achieving both rapid change in addition to high assurance Multiple views of the ICM Viewpoints in addition to examples The Incremental Commitment Life Cycle Process: Overview Stage I: Definition Stage II: Development in addition to Operations Anchor Point Milestones Synchronize, stabilize concurrency via FRs Risk patterns determine life cycle process Anchor Point Feasibility Rationales Evidence provided by developer in addition to validated by independent experts that: If the system is built to the specified architecture, it will Satisfy the requirements: capability, interfaces, level of service, in addition to evolution Support the operational concept Be buildable within the budgets in addition to schedules in the plan Generate a viable return on investment Generate satisfactory outcomes as long as all of the success-critical stakeholders All major risks resolved or covered by risk management plans Serves as basis as long as stakeholders’ commitment to proceed

There is Another Cone of Uncertainty: Shorter increments are better Uncertainties in competition, technology, organizations, mission priorities The Incremental Commitment Life Cycle Process: Overview Stage I: Definition Stage II: Development in addition to Operations Anchor Point Milestones Concurrently engr. OpCon, rqts, arch, plans, prototypes Concurrently engr. Incr.N (ops), N+1 (devel), N+2 (arch) ICM Stage II: Increment View

ICM Stage II: Increment View A radical idea No; a commercial best practice in addition to part of DoDI 5000.2 ICM Principles in addition to Approach From the spiral model to the ICM Principles in addition to example Risk-driven incremental definition: ICM Stage I Buying in as long as mation to reduce risk Risk-driven incremental development: ICM Stage II Achieving both rapid change in addition to high assurance Multiple views of the ICM Viewpoints in addition to examples V C R D C R I O C O C R A C R C C D MBASE-RUP/ICM Anchor Points Enable Concurrent Engineering

ICM HSI Levels of Activity as long as Complex Systems Different Risk Patterns Yield Different Processes Common Risk-Driven Special Cases of the Incremental Commitment Model (ICM) C4ISR: Comm in addition to , Control, Computing, Communications, Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance. CDR: Critical Design Review. DCR: Development Commitment Review. FRP: Full-Rate Production. HMI: Human-Machine Interface. HW: Hard ware. IOC: Initial Operational Capability. LRIP: Low-Rate Initial Production. NDI: Non-Development Item. SW: Software

References – I Beck, K., Extreme Programming Explained, Addison Wesley, 1999. Boehm, B., “Some Future Trends in addition to Implications as long as Systems in addition to Software Engineering Processes”, Systems Engineering 9(1), pp. 1-19, 2006. Boehm, B., Brown, W., Basili, V., in addition to Turner, R., “Spiral Acquisition of Software-Intensive Systems of Systems, CrossTalk, Vol. 17, No. 5, pp. 4-9, 2004. Boehm, B. in addition to Lane J., “21st Century Processes as long as Acquiring 21st Century Software-Intensive Systems of Systems.” CrossTalk: Vol. 19, No. 5, pp.4-9, 2006. Boehm, B., in addition to Lane, J., “Using the ICM to Integrate System Acquisition, Systems Engineering, in addition to Software Engineering,” CrossTalk, October 2007, pp. 4-9. Boehm, B., “Future Challenges in addition to Rewards as long as Softwarre Engineers,” DoD Software Tech News, October 2007, pp. 6-12. Boehm, B. et al., Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II, Prentice Hall, 2000. Boehm, B., Software Engineering Economics, Prentice Hall, 2000. Carlock, P. in addition to Fenton, R., “System of Systems (SoS) Enterprise Systems as long as In as long as mation-Intensive Organizations,” Systems Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 242-26, 2001. Carlock, P., in addition to J. Lane, “System of Systems Enterprise Systems Engineering, the Enterprise Architecture Management Framework, in addition to System of Systems Cost Estimation”, 21st International Forum on COCOMO in addition to Systems/Software Cost Modeling, 2006. Checkl in addition to , P., Systems Thinking, Systems Practice, Wiley, 1980 (2nd ed., 1999). Department of Defense (DoD), Defense Acquisition Guidebook, version 1.6, http://akss.dau.mil/dag/, 2006. Hall, E.T., Beyond Culture, Anchor Books/Doubleday, 1976. Highsmith, J., Adaptive Software Development, Dorset House, 2000. Jensen, R. “An Improved Macrolevel Software Development Resource Estimation Model,” Proceedings, ISPA 5, April 1983, pp. 88-92. References -II Krygiel, A. (1999); Behind the Wizard’s Curtain; CCRP Publication Series, July, 1999, p. 33 Lane, J. in addition to Boehm, B., “System of Systems Cost Estimation: Analysis of Lead System Integrator Engineering Activities”, In as long as mation Resources Management Journal, Vol. 20, No. 2, pp. 23-32, 2007. Lane, J. in addition to Valerdi, R., “Synthesizing SoS Concepts as long as Use in Cost Estimation”, Proceedings of IEEE Systems, Man, in addition to Cybernetics Conference, 2005. Lientz, B., in addition to Swanson, E.B., Software Maintenance Management, Addison Wesley, 1980. Madachy, R., Boehm, B., Lane, J., “Assessing Hybrid Incremental Processes as long as SISOS Development”, USC CSSE Technical Report USC-CSSE-2006-623, 2006. Maier, M., “System in addition to Software Architecture Reconciliation,” Systems Engineering 9 (2), 2006, pp. 146-159. Northrop, L., et al., Ultra-Large-Scale Systems: The Software Challenge of the Future, Software Engineering Institute, 2006. Pew, R. W., in addition to Mavor, A. S., Human-System Integration in the System Development Process: A New Look, National Academy Press, 2007. Putnam, L., “A General Empirical Solution to the Macro Software Sizing in addition to Estimating Problem,” IEEE Trans SW Engr., July 1978, pp. 345-361. Rechtin, E. Systems Architecting, Prentice Hall, 1991. Schroeder, T., “Integrating Systems in addition to Software Engineering: Observations in Practice,” OSD/USC Integrating Systems in addition to Software Engineering Workshop, http://csse.usc.edu/events/2007/CIIForum/pages/program.html, October 2007. SoSE-Related References Carlock, P.G., in addition to R.E. Fenton, “System of Systems (SoS) Enterprise Systems as long as In as long as mation-Intensive Organizations,” Systems Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 242-261, 2001 Department of Defense (DoD), Defense Acquisition Guidebook, version 1.6, http://akss.dau.mil/dag/, 2006. Department of Defense (DoD), System of Systems Engineering Guide: Considerations as long as Systems Engineering in a System of Systems Environment, draft version 0.9, 2006. DiMario, Mike (2006); “System of Systems Characteristics in addition to Interoperability in Joint Comm in addition to Control”, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference Electronic Industries Alliance (1999); EIA St in addition to ard 632: Processes as long as Engineering a System Finley, James (2006); “Keynote Address”, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference Garber, Vitalij (2006); “Keynote Presentation”, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference INCOSE (2006); Systems Engineering H in addition to book, Version 3, INCOSE-TP-2003-002-03 Kuras, M. L., White, B. E., Engineering Enterprises Using Complex-System Engineering, INCOSE Symposium 2005. Krygiel, A. (1999); Behind the Wizard’s Curtain; CCRP Publication Series, July, 1999, p. 33 Maier, M. (1998); “Architecting Principles as long as Systems-of-Systems”; Systems Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 4 (pp 267-284) Meilich, Abe (2006); “System of Systems Engineering (SoSE) in addition to Architecture Challenges in a Net Centric Environment”, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference Pair, Major General Carlos (2006); “Keynote Presentation”, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference Proceedings of AFOSR SoSE Workshop, Sponsored by Purdue University, 17-18 May 2006 Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference, Sponsored by System of Systems Engineering Center of Excellence (SoSECE), http://www.sosece.org/, 2006. Proceedings of Society as long as Design in addition to Process Science 9th World Conference on Integrated Design in addition to Process Technology, San Diego, CA, 25-30 June 2006 Siel, Carl (2006); “Keynote Presentation”, Proceedings of the 2nd Annual System of Systems Engineering Conference United States Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (2005); Report on System-of-Systems Engineering as long as Air Force Capability Development; Public Release SAB-TR-05-04

Nelson, Gary Arizona Republic - Mesa Bureau, The Mesa City Hall Reporter www.phwiki.com

List of Acronyms ACR Architecting Commitment Review B/L Baselined CCD Core Capability Drive-Through COTS Commercial Off-the-Shelf DCR Development Commitment Review DI Development Increment DOTMLPF Doctrine, Organization, Training, Materiel, Leadership, Personnel, Facilities ECR Exploration Commitment Review FMEA Failure Modes in addition to Effects Analysis GUI Graphical User Interface HSI Human-System Interface ICM Incremental Commitment Model IOC Initial Operational Capability IRR Inception Readiness Review List of Acronyms (continued) LCA Life Cycle Architecture LCO Life Cycle Objectives OC Operational Capability OCR Operations Commitment Review OO&D Observe, Orient in addition to Decide OODA Observe, Orient, Decide, Act O&M Operations in addition to Maintenance PRR Product Release Review RACRS Regional Area Crisis Response System SoS System of Systems SoSE System of Systems Engineering TSE Traditional Systems Engineering VCR Validation Commitment Review V&V Verification in addition to Validation

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