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Identifying the problem Global v. Local Presentation Outline PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICYMAKING
Chicago State University, US has reference to this Academic Journal, PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLICYMAKING David Zilberman Jennifer Alix Department of Agricultural in addition to Resource Economics University of California, Berkeley Presentation Outline Identifying the problem Toward policy interventions Constraints on policymaking in addition to implementation Identifying the problem Global v. Local Global Environmental Problems -require cooperation among many countries -resources in question are so large that everyone must share them (eg. Air,transboundary rivers, ozone layer) -resources in question are so mobile that they cross national borders (eg. Migratory birds in addition to straddling fish stocks) Local Environmental Problems -can be dealt alongside at the local or regional levels (eg. Pesticide contamination, industrial pollution, soil erosion)
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Causes of environmental problems Externalities Tragedy of the commons Public goods Myopic behavior Failures of Governance Externalities in production process Definition: an activity damages the environment while not hurting the person who undertakes the activity.
Tragedy of the commons Results when groups of people are responsible in consideration of the management of a resource in consideration of which none of them holds exclusive rights. Examples: groundwater, pesticide resistance, communal forests in addition to fisheries Reasons: 1) participants are unaware of the effect of their activity on the long-run quality of the resource. 2) users are in a race so that capture the benefits provided by the resource. Public goods Goods that are shared in addition to consumed by many people. Consumption of the good by one person does not limit or reduce its use by another. Example: Biological diversity Problem: Little incentive so that contribute so that its preservation.
Useful Articles, Works in consideration of Hire Today?s Topics Mazer v. Stein: Lamp Base/Statue may be copyrighted Pictorial, Graphic & Sculptural Works [PGS] ? Sec. 101 PGS works (cont?d) ??the design of a useful article ? shall be considered a [PGS] work only if, in addition to only so that the extent that, such design incorporates [PGS] features that can be identified separately from, in addition to are capable of existing independently of, the utilitarian aspects of the article.? Sec. 101: ?Useful article? A ?useful article? is an article having an intrinsic utilitarian function that is not merely so that portray the appearance of the article or so that convey information. An article that is normally a part of a useful article is considered a ?useful article?. Applied art vs. ?industrial design? IDSA Award Winners Design Elements Brandir Int?l v. Cascade Pacific Physical separability: Mazer; hood ornament ?Conceptual separability? ? what does this mean in practice? Carol Barnhart Conceptual separability test Commercial market ?test? Denicola Test P. 427 ?[I]t is in its final form a work of industrial design . . .? ?Form in addition to function are inextricably intertwined in the rack . . .? p. 427 Of course, this is the essence of much of modern design: Form follows Function! Form in addition to function . . . Kieselstein: Belt Buckles Dissent: Judge Winter What if ?aesthetic? sculpture happened so that coincide alongside good dimensions in consideration of a bike rack? Government Works Ownership Section 201(b) James Reid Reid in addition to CCNV CCNV v Reid
Myopic Behavior Short-sighted or myopic behavior Reasons: 1) lack of knowledge regarding the consequences of resource use. 2) agent discounting the future at a high rate. -present-day survival in consideration of extremely poor. -high-risk activities/uncertainty (uncertainty of the nature of property, civil unrest, etc) Failures of governance Examples of government failure: -Poorly planned or inappropriately applied government policies -Failure so that clearly explain rules so that a regulated population -Enforce policies alongside preference so that particular groups Toward policy interventions Policy objectives Policy outcomes Policy Tools
Policy objectives Efficiency Cost Effectiveness Distributional Objectives Variability Reduction Environmental in addition to Health Quality Parameters Efficiency Pareto efficiency: situations where one cannot improve the lot of one individual (by changing resource allocation) without hurting someone else. Consumer in addition to producer surplus
Cost Effectiveness When political or other pressures predetermine policy objectives, policymakers may aim so that minimize the cost so that attain those targets (eg. Design policy so that achieve improved water quality at the lowest cost) Distributional Objectives Redistribute the initial distribution of resources because equity is not considered in the efficiency concept. (Eg. It is possible so that have an efficient resource allocation where 90 percent of society?s resources are controlled by 5 percent of its population). 2 ways so that redistribute: 1) maximize the well being of lowest-income groups. 2) aim so that achieve a given level of income or well-being. Lorenz Curves
Variability reduction Reduction of uncertainty in addition to fluctuation Examples: Flood control projects, marketing boards in consideration of non-perishable agricultural goods Environmental in addition to health quality parameters Specific indicators on environmental in addition to human health conditions. 1) environmental/health indicators serve as an objective so that be maximized subject so that a budget constraint or 2) a policymaker may take a cost-minimization approach in addition to design policies so that achieve a target level of environmental or health conditions. Policy outcomes Behavior Modification Resource Reallocation Resource in addition to capital Augmentation
Behavior modification Examples: Mandatory schooling, soil conservation programs in addition to food subsidies. Short v. Long-run behavior modification: -Short run: modification consists of changes in existing production in addition to consumption patterns -long run: change may involve adoption of new practices in addition to technologies. Resource Reallocation Change in income distribution. (Ex. welfare policies result in a transfer of income so that poor or disadvantaged groups). Changes in land allocation in addition to other resources (Ex. reduction in agricultural land in addition to increase the land used in consideration of environmental services). Resource in addition to Capital Augmentation Expansion of economic activities through such activities as: -tax relief during recession -subsidy in consideration of certain economic activities Policies often result in the expansion of: -Physical capital (Infrastructure. Ex. dams) -Human capital (Transfer of knowledge in addition to skills) -Social in addition to natural capital (Ex. Improvement in environmental quality)
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