II. Taxonomic Principles I. Taxonomic Concepts Taxonomy & Evolutionary History

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II. Taxonomic Principles I. Taxonomic Concepts Taxonomy & Evolutionary History

Carroll College Waukesha, US has reference to this Academic Journal, Taxonomy & Evolutionary History Taxonomic Concepts Taxonomic Principles Time Scale Rate of Evolutionary Change I. Taxonomic Concepts Taxonomy ? scientific system in consideration of classification. Uses a set of rules so that determine relationships among items (organisms?) in a set. Today, still based on Linnaeus? seven level system: Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, in addition to Species. Remember as King Phillip Crossed Over For Grape Soda All organisms are referred so that by their genus & species (binomial nomenclature). II. Taxonomic Principles Structures that are shared through descent from a common ancestor are called homologies. Homoplasy is the process by which similarities can develop in different groups of organisms. Leads so that analogous structures.

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II. Taxonomic Principles C. Structures in organisms that are used in consideration of the same function, but have developed independently in addition to are not the result of common descent, are called analogies. D. Analogies are often the result of convergent evolution. II. Taxonomic Principles E. Cladistic Taxonomy An approach so that taxonomy that groups species according so that shared derived characteristics. Traits that reflecting the ancestral condition of an organism are primitive. Traits shared by all members of a group, but not present before the group’s appearance, are said so that be shared derived characteristics (e.g nails in primates). II. Taxonomic Principles E. Cladistic Taxonomy Related groups are thus in the same clade, or branch/level (genus, family, or whatever) At the finest levels, determining where one species starts or stops, however, is sometimes a problem.

II. Taxonomic Principles F. Speciation Groups of organisms capable of breeding so that create fertile offspring that COULD normally be expected so that contact one another. Species are reproductively isolated from one another: Biological ? physical or genetic limitations Geographic ? separation of the organisms on the landscape Behavioral ? social separation of organisms (e.g. nocturnal/diurnal) III. Time Scale: Geological Eras Paleozoic The first vertebrates appeared 500 mya Mesozoic Reptiles were dominant land vertebrates. Placental mammals appeared 70 mya Cenozoic Divided into two periods: Tertiary in addition to Quaternary in addition to 7 epochs. III. Time Scale: Cenozoic Epochs Draw in addition to leave space so that fill this chart: Epoch Time Primates Paleocene 65 mya Eocene 55 mya Oligocene 34 mya Miocene 23 mya Pliocene 5 mya Pleistocene 1.8 mya Holocene 0.01 mya

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III. Time Scale: Mammal Evolution The Cenozoic era is known as the Age of Mammals. After dinosaurs became extinct at 65 mya, mammals underwent adaptive radiation, resulting in rapid expansion in addition to diversification. One advantage was the larger neocortex, which controls higher brain functions, comprised the majority of brain volume in mammals resulting in greater ability so that learn. III. Time Scale: Mammal Evolution Another was the variety of diet mammals were capable of, due so that their digestive in addition to dental differentiation (heterodont ? having many types of teeth) Yet another was mammals? endothermy, or ability so that easily self-regulate their body temperature Still another was mammals? emergence of marsupial in addition to later placental birthing ? keeping the developing embryo inside the mother in consideration of protection in addition to greater development IV. Rate of Evolution Punctuated Equilibrium Long periods of no change punctuated by rapid evolution in addition to speciation (@ right) S. Gould in addition to N. Eldredge Explains gaps in record Phyletic Gradualism Darwin?s idea of slow gradual change leading so that eventual speciation

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