IIS Process Right-Sizing But IIS Process Right-Sizing IIS Process Right-Sizing

IIS Process Right-Sizing But IIS Process Right-Sizing IIS Process Right-Sizing www.phwiki.com

IIS Process Right-Sizing But IIS Process Right-Sizing IIS Process Right-Sizing

Devine, Caribe, Meteorologist has reference to this Academic Journal, PHwiki organized this Journal IIS Approach to Process Right-Sizing Lawrence Goldstein Southern Cali as long as nia SPIN February 6, 2004 Agenda Northrop Grumman Internal In as long as mation Services What is it Geographic scope Some historic data on software process improvement at IIS IIS Process Right-Sizing General approach Process size Size-a-matic™ Tailoring options Waivers Special cases Maintenance Web / RAD Summary Who is Northrop Grumman IT IIS Northrop Grumman is a $25 billion global defense company Operating in 50 states in addition to 25 countries Approximately 120,000 employees Defense product focus Advanced aircraft, shipbuilding in addition to space technology Systems integration Defense electronics In as long as mation technology Northrop Grumman’s Internal In as long as mation Services (IIS) is the business unit responsible as long as providing the IT infrastructure to the rest of the corporation Our only customer is the rest of Northrop Grumman Our mission is to provide strategic in as long as mation solutions in addition to technologies which contribute to Northrop Grumman’s competitiveness

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IIS Geographic Scope IIS Locations – North America Reston, VA Sunnyvale, CA Century City, CA Hawthorne, CA El Segundo, CA Palmdale, CA Torrance, CA San Pedro, CA San Diego, CA Norwalk, CT Melbourne, FL GA Rolling Meadows, IL Lake Charles, LA Baltimore, MD Albuquerque Bethpage, NY San Angelo, TX Dallas, TX Herndon, VA Reading, MA Toronto, ON Chantilly, VA Gaithersburg, MD College Park, MD Garl in addition to , TX Goleta, CA Woodl in addition to Hills, CA Northridge, CA Tempe, AZ Salt Lake City, UT Apopka, FL Pascagoula, MS Avondale, LA Charlottesville, VA San Jose, CA Enfield, NS Ocean Springs, MS Amherst, NY Bellevue, NE Greenbelt, MD Bethesda, MD Stuart, FL St. Augustine, FL Newport News, VA Pt. Mugu, CA Azusa, CA Huntsville, AL Over 3,700 Employees Redondo Beach Fairfax, VA Clearfield, UT Aurora, CO Carson, CA Fort Hood, TX San Antonio, TX Austin, TX Wheeling, WV Kettering, OH Troy, MI Colorado Springs, CO San Bernardino, CA Columbia, MD Sierra Vista, AZ IIS Process Improvement Path 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 CMMI L3 NISC Grumman Westinghouse Rolling Meadows Litton Newport News TRW Vought heritage organizations IIS Process Right-Sizing General Approach

The Problem Project Labor hours Number of Projects 0 0 100,000+ The Problem Project Labor hours Number of Projects 0 0 100,000+ The Problem Project Labor hours Number of Projects 0 0 100,000+

IIS Process Tailoring Philosophy The main purpose behind the process is to protect the project from failure Deliver the product on-time, agreed to cost, agreed to quality If less work is needed to create the product, then less process should be needed to protect the project Less to go wrong Consequences of failure are lower High dollar value projects with little labor are treated as special cases But The process also is needed as long as organizational purposes Some process is always required regardless of amount of work to create the product The Devil is in the Details IIS General Approach The project team determines whether the project is Minor, Small, Medium, or Large.

Determine Project Size 1 of 2 Determine in addition to describe the ef as long as t estimating approach in addition to data to be used in addition to how it will be used Others should be able to recreate estimate from data provided Estimate size of software work products Calculate estimated ef as long as t Convert work product size to labor hours to produce the products Size any other project activities in addition to convert them into labor hours Determine Project Size 2 of 2 Use Size-a-matic™ Ef as long as t Estimate Key-in total project ef as long as t estimate (hours) Size Adjustments Evaluate risk levels as long as 6 key areas Describe rationale as long as levels selected Resolves the issue of a “large Minor” vs. a “small Medium” Tailoring Building Blocks Regardless of development lifecycle chosen by a project, the same general sets of activities always have to be done The differences usually revolve around the ORDERING of those activities in addition to the scale of those activities All lifecycles have to Define requirements Design solutions Construct code Discover defects Etc. So why not define plug- in addition to -play processes , tailorable by size, as long as the different project lifecycles to use Then lifecycle definition becomes a case of pre-defined process ordering with minimal process development required

Tailor, Tailor, Tailor Project size is used to identify the specific activities in addition to deliverables required as long as each CMMISM Process Area involved in the project. Minor Small Medium Large RM PP PMC M&A PPQA CM Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do Do Don’t do And Then There Are Waivers Waivers provide the option as long as tailoring “outside of process boundaries” Waive compliance with required process Based on a substantiated business case which requires deviation from the st in addition to ard Approved by someone high enough in the management chain to underst in addition to the implications If you define your process set correctly, waivers should rarely be needed All the common tailoring should be pre-defined, balanced, with the trade-offs well understood in addition to accepted Waivers should definitely be the exception rather than the rule IIS Process Right-Sizing Special Cases

Special Cases Special circumstances require special methods Maintenance of production systems Web / Rapid Application Development (RAD) A separate lifecycle methodology is applied Pre-tailored to address the special circumstances with just the right amount of process in all the right places Project sizing is not used to determine tailoring because the lifecycle is pre-tailored Less project-by-project options means simpler to plan Process Costs Risk of Failure 2003 Distribution by Project Size Maintenance Umbrella Projects 1 of 4 Covers “level of ef as long as t” maintenance work ef as long as ts Application systems in production Supported by pre-allocated labor pool of experts Budgeted on an annual basis Each new customer request is either New or changed requirement Reported system defect Service request (data load, table change, etc.) Groups minor-sized work ef as long as ts occurring within a specified period of time, range of hours, in addition to /or cost amount Annual renewal Pre-determined fixed cost (e.g. 500 hours) No upper limit on aggregate work covered, only on each discrete work ef as long as t Special maintenance umbrella project plan template

Maintenance Umbrella Projects 2 of 4 Addresses a collection of minor work ef as long as ts on production systems which are related in one or more ways Common customer Common system Common hardware Common support organization Maintenance Umbrella Projects 3 of 4 Allows as long as the one-time definition of a st in addition to ard approach pertaining to all of the related work ef as long as ts Common roles in addition to responsibilities Common PPQA approach Common CM approach Common RM approach Common RSKM approach Etc. Requires more process than any single minor work ef as long as t, but less than if all work per as long as med were treated as individual minor projects Recognizes that more process is needed to protect production software than is required as long as minor work ef as long as ts Better protection as long as less cost Maintenance Umbrella Projects 4 of 4 Work requests which size as larger than Minor are spun off as separate projects Separate project plan Separate funding Separate QA But can still use common CM, RSKM, etc. Customer Request Sizing Process Minor Not Minor

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Eat at Joe’s Reg. Double 1/3 lb Hamburger Soy-burger Small Medium Large Soda (coke, orange, root beer, sprite) Milkshake (chocolate, vanilla) Malted (chocolate, vanilla, peanut butter) $1.25 $1.75 $2.50 $1.05 $1.50 $2.00 $ .75 $ 1.25 $ 1.85 $ 1.75 $ 2.25 $ 3.00 $ 2.25 $ 2.75 $ 3.50 Jo’s Estimating Table Simple Average Complex DB Segment Change DB Segment Add Screen Change Screen Add Screen Delete 10 hrs 15 hrs 25 hrs 15 hrs 20 hrs 30 hrs 20 hrs 30 hrs 50 hrs 30 hrs 45 hrs 60 hrs 10 hrs 15 hrs 20 hrs DB Segment Delete 10 hrs 12 hrs 15 hrs < 5 elmts < 10 elmts < 20 elmts Umbrella Special Tailoring Example St in addition to ard process Must per as long as m a Post-Implementation Evaluation (PIE) n days following implementation Umbrella process Allows as long as the “bundling” of multiple small changes into quarterly PIEs instead Major changes are still be evaluated separately Web Application Development Unique set of problems in addition to opportunities Q: How do you marry structured process to the agile philosophy A: Very carefully!! Basic Terminology WADM™ – Web Application Development Methodology A lightweight, rapid application development process as long as use in web application development, which is SW CMM / CMMISM level 3 compliant Lightweight Minimal amount of intermediate “stuff” Steps Artifacts Reviews Rapid application development A series of short, incremental development cycles Web application An application, possibly linked to one or more databases, which uses the web as the user interface SW CMM / CMMISM level 3 compliant software development methodology A structured set of processes in addition to procedures, which has the goal of reliably producing high quality software in addition to other work products, on schedule, in addition to within cost. WADM™ Overview 1 of 2 The WADM™ is a full lifecycle process as long as web development projects, in addition to as long as non-web development projects having similar characteristics It calls as long as a high level of customer involvement, short development cycles, in addition to rapid development. General criteria as long as using the lifecycle A high degree of customer involvement Sufficient size in addition to work scope to allow functionality to be allocated to progressive production releases Simple design A requirement as long as rapid delivery of functioning releases (get something up in addition to running quickly) The overall program can be compartmentalized into st in addition to -alone projects with small teams of developers Summary 4 of 6 Tame that SW-CMM / CMMISM monster Turn it into something that your programmers in addition to engineers will relate to Summary 5 of 6 Apply the intelligence principle to your process definitions What is the purpose of all this You don’t have to follow the SW-CMM or the CMMI slavishly at the sub-practice level meet the intent If you have families of projects, customize your process definitions to make planning them easier Allow your projects to apply the intelligence principle as well Keep your eyes on the prize: better run in addition to more predictable projects that meet your customers needs Avoid process as long as process sake Summary 6 of 6 Trust in the Force but make it easy to comply!

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